Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

Colonial Events 1816

Over 14,000 convicts transported to Colony by the end of the year


Colonial vessel Estramina wrecked on the Oyster Bank at Newcastle An account of the wreck from the Sydney Gazette

January 18

Arrival of Convict ship Fanny arrived with 171 male prisoners among them Thomas Parmeter . Surgeon William McDonald

January 18

News of the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte reached Sydney. Subscriptions for Veterans commenced.

January 19

Arrival of the convict ship Mary Anne I . Surgeon James Bowman

January 30

Arrival of the convict ship Ocean with 218 prisoners. Surgeon Edward Foord Bromley


Convict Francis Greenway appointed Civil Architect.


Four white people killed by aborigines near the Nepean.


Survey of the Mouth of the Hunter River by Lieut. Charles Jeffreys. His survey map in Newcastle Morning Herald 15 April 1939 shows High Street (later Watt St.) as the only street in the town.

April 4

The convict ship Alexander arrived from Ireland with female prisoners. Surgeon John W. Hallion

April 8

Arrival of the Convict Ship Guildford . Surgeon Alexander Taylor

April 8

In Sydney patients transferred from the old hospital to the new General Hospital on this day. ( Sydney Gazette)

April 10

Punitive forays against Aborigines at Grose, Nepean and Hawkesbury Rivers by a detachment under Captain Shaw and Captain Wallis of the 46th regiment (Captain Wallis arrived in command of the guard on the General Hewitt in 1814.


First school established in Newcastle.... Henry Wrensford the first schoolmaster


First Pupils at the school at Newcastle....Margaret Carberry, Jane Eckford, Celia Fraser, Catharine Fraser, Catharine Hector, Rebecca Ross, Catharine Irwin, Elizabeth Murphy, William Irwin, John Eckford, Henry Eckford, William Eckford, James Eckford, Peter Fraser, Charles Jenks, John Price, John Maloney. (From Convict Era to Modern Times, Newcastle East School 1816 - 1966, E.J. Braggett)

June 1

Captain James Wallis appointed Commandant at Newcastle His Excellency the Governor has been pleased to appoint Captain James Wallis of the 46th Regiment to be Commandant of the Settlement of Newcastle; and also to be a Justice of Peace and Magistrate of the same Settlement, during his command thereof. The Salary of Captain Wallis as Commandant of Newcastle will commence on and from the Date of his receiving Charge thereof from the present Commandant. Captain Wallis will receive written Instructions for his Guidance, as commandant of Newcastle, previous to his Departure for that Settlement, from the governor . Sydney Gazette 1 June 1816

June 1

First issue of Hobart Town Gazette


Launch of government vessel Elizabeth Henrietta. The Sydney Gazette 15 June 1816 - On Thursday the 13th instant, at noon, a Government vessel, of about 150 tons burthen, was launched from His Majesty's dockyard at Sydney amidst a numerous assemblage of all classes of the inhabitants, who had resorted there to witness a scene altogether so novel on the coast of New South Wales. The style in which this fine brig left the stocks was peculiarly graceful, and enhanced the effect of the ceremony of consigning her to her new element, with the name of the Elizabeth Henrietta which His Excellency the Governor was pleased to give her in the usual form of breaking a bottle of wine on her bow. The Band of the 46th Regiment attended and played several favourite tunes, commencing at the moment of her starting with God save the King! Followed by Rule Britannia!Hearts of Oak! And several other cheerful and appropriate airs; until at length the scene closed with the Elizabeth Henrietta riding safe at anchor in Sydney Cove. The keel of this vessel was originally laid by Governor Hunter in the year 1800 but very slow progress was made towards completing her during his and the succeeding administration of Governor King. Some alterations in her general construction took place by order of Governor Bligh, which during the assumed Government were no further proceeded in; until at length we had the gratification of witnessing a very handsome and valuable acquisition to our maritime concerns, in the brig Elizabeth Henrietta built on our own shores, and apparently well calculated for the service of Government.

June 13

Botanical Gardens established in Sydney

June 29

James Clohesy found guilty of burglary and sentenced to hard labour for life 'This day James Clossey was indicted for a burglary committed in the house of Mr. Wilford of Clarence Street, Sydney on the night of the 29th of February last, and stealing a large amount in property among which was a quantity of wearing apparel of good quality, 11 guineas in gold, and other valuable articles. A Crown approver was the chief evidence against the prisoner; the testimony of the said witness being strongly supported by circumstantial evidence of an undoubted nature, the prisoner was found guilty' - Sydney Gazette 29 June 1816

July 22

Atlas III convict ship arrived with 187 male prisoners. Surgeon Patrick Hill

July 27

Foundation stone of South Head Lighthouse, Port Jackson laid by Gov. Macquarie


Bad weather causes the loss of several small vessels Vessel 'Recovery' wrecked at Port Stephens and Solomon Wiseman's Hawkesbury Packet


Vessel Edwin wrecked 100 miles north of Newcastle


Elizabeth Henrietta upset her moorings in the Hunter River. Two people drowned

September 12

The Trial colonial vessel, seized by convicts at Watson's Bay, Port Jackson. (Later found by John Oxley north of Port Stephens)


First emigrant ship to Hobart

October 5

Convict ship Elizabeth I arrived from England. Passenger on board Judge Advocate John Wylde. Surgeon Caryer Vickery

October 11

Arrival of the Mariner Captain John Herbert. Surgeon John Haslam . Cabin passengers included Lieut. Robert Johnston, R.N., Mrs. Broughton, Mr. and Mrs. Tress and family; and Mr. and Mrs. Ikin and family.


Vessel Nautilis ran aground at Newcastle (Captain Edward Edwards)


Horses exported for the Indian army

December 20

Convict Ship Surry arrived from Cork. Master Thomas Raine. Surgeon John. F. Bayley . Explorer Allan Cunningham passenger on board.


2,886 female convicts transported to NSW by the end of 1816