Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

Colonial Events 1810

Estimated Population of the colony in 1810 - almost 11,773

Cedar getters operating along the banks of the Hunter River past present day Maitland

January 1

Lachlan Macquarie, took up his appointment as Governor of New South Wales on 1st January 1810. He remained in office until 1 December 1821..... 'A Colonial Autocracy' - New South Wales under Governor Macquarie by Marion Philips

January 4

All those people appointed to official positions since Governor Bligh's removal dismissed. Trials and land grants nullified.

January 5

Prisoners in Sydney gaol to be released on the occasion of Governor Macquarie taking Office: - James Hargrave, John Worthington, William Henry, James Hardwicke, Thomas Jones, James Stoneham, John Draper, Ralph Summers, James Smith, Thomas Hayes, George Dunstan, Garret Armstrong, John Anson, Lawrence Parory, and Hadji (a black man)

January 27

All those who had been granted Pardons under the assumed Government while William Bligh was placed under arrest required to surrender Pardons or be immediately arrested. Read Governor Macquarie's Public Notice

January 30

William Lawson, a Lieutenant in the NSW Corp, was sent to England in 1810 as a witness at George Johnston's court martial.


George Crossley, Sir Henry Browne Hayes, Roger Farrell to be liberated from Newcastle penal settlement following the Proclamation of Governor Macquarie. Read Roger Farrell's correspondence to Governor Bligh detailing the treatment he had received at Newcastle Penal Settlement.

February 24

Announcement of the establishment of a Free School by Governor Macquarie.

February 27

Convict Ship Anne arrived from England with 197 male prisoners. Among the prisoners Benjamin Grainger who worked for many years in the Newcastle coal mines

February 27

Arrival of Rev. Robert Cartwright in Sydney on the Anne

February 27

Arrival of Rev. Samuel Marsen in Sydney on the Anne

March 21

Lieutenant John Purcell appointed Commandant at Newcastle in room of Lieutenant William Lawson. Find out more about the penal settlement at Newcastle in 1810

March 24

Death of Lieutenant-Governor Collins at the settlement at Hobart whilst sitting in his chair conversing with his surgeon, who had attended him during a short illness of six days (Caledonian Mercury 8 November 1810). The Hull Packet recorded the following correspondence 'the settlement has lost a man of ability. temper, and humanity, and will not easily find such another; the soldiers have lost a friend, the convicts a protector. Indeed, very few are to be found of those who have lived under his government that do not lament him as a father. For my own part, though, I had less to do with him than many others, I consider him a very great loss to the colony in general. He was a man of the most conciliatory manners, a scholar, and a perfect gentleman, and had the interest of the country at heart. He was buried with military honours, and followed to the grave by all descriptions of people, the whole of whom vied in bearing testimony to his worth and in expressions of regret'.


Richard Horner employed as acting surgeon at Newcastle penal settlement

May 12

Departure of William Bligh on the Hindostan.

May 19

Servants of the Crown directed to attend church on Sundays

June 14

Mathew Flinders released from prison at Mauritius and sailed for England

June 21

Death of William Paterson Lieutenant-Colonel of the 102 regiment, Fellow of the Royal Society, Member of the Asiatic Society and Lieutenant Governor of New South Wales. He died on HMS Dromedary while at sea. William Paterson was born on 17 August 1755 in Scotland. As a boy he became keenly interested in botany and in 1777, through the patronage of Countess Strathmore, he was enabled to visit South Africa. He made four journeys into the interior; after he returned in 1780 he prepared an account of his experiences, entitled Narrative of Four Journeys into the Country of the Hottentots and Caffraria, which he published and dedicated to Sir Joseph Banks in 1789.

July 20

Publication of a New Plan of the Settlements of New South Wales by John Booth (London). Author Robert Rowe


Crops at the Hawkesbury destroyed by a Caterpillar plague

September 8

Arrival of the Convict Ship Canada. Captain John B. Ward.


Sydney street names altered by order of Governor Macquarie - The main thoroughfare previously known as Sergeant-Major's Row, Spring Row and the High Street became George Street after the King; Pitt's Row named after the Prime Minister became Pitt Street; Chapel Row became Castlereagh Street after the Secretary of State for the colonies; Elizabeth Street was named for the Governor's wife; Back Row became Phillip Street after the colony's first Governor The track then beyond Phillip street was straightened and became known as Macquarie Street. Bell Row was altered to Bligh Street South Street became O'Connell Street after Lieut.Gov. Maurice O'Connell; Streets to the west of George Street were named after various Dukes - York, Clarence, Kent and Sussex. Hunter and King Streets were named after former governors. Bridge street with the stone bridge crossing the Tank Street kept its original name. Market Street was named for the town market; Park street led to Hyde Park.


Sydney - George Street Markets opened


Governor Macquarie and party set out on two month journey to inland districts.


Alexander Riley and Garnham Blaxcell contracted to build a hospital in exchange for a monopoly on the import of rum. (Rum Hospital)


Arrival of Maurice Margarot in Sheffield after suffering 14 years transportation to New South Wales for 'uttering certain expressions on the subject of Parliamentary reform'. He had arrived in the colony on the convict ship Surprise in 1794.


Five towns named by Governor Macquarie - Windsor, Richmond, Castlereagh, Pitt town, and Wilberforce.


Governor Macquarie issues first building regulations requiring houses to be made of brick or weatherboards, have brick chimneys and shingled roofs.

December 16

Arrival from England of the convict ship Indian, Captain Barclay