Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

George Wyndham - Settler

Dalwood - Map 4

Archibald Bell James Black William Brooks John Cobb Henry Dangar John Earl John Gaggin William Harper William Kelman John Larnach George Wyndham George White Joseph Underwood A.B. Spark Benjamin Sullivan Alexander Shand Helenus Scott James Mitchell George Wyndham Helenus Scott John Larnach Shaw Stewart Early Settler Map 4

David Maziere

David Maziere was born in Co. Armagh, Ireland in 1799, son of Andrew Maziere a respected medical gentleman. His mother's Maiden name was Jane Boyd [9]. He departed Leith on 11th July 1822 on the Skelton and arrived in Hobart late in December 1822 before sailed on to Sydney[1].

Land Grant

On 11th March 1823 he informed the authorities that his means would enable him to take twenty convicts off the stores permanently and requested a grant be made accordingly [3]. In correspondence dated 23 March 1823 he was informed that he would be made a grant of land of 2000 acres in any part of the colony already surveyed and assigned six convicts to work the land [2]. He selected his grant on the Hunter River and named it Annandale.

In 1825 his farm at the Hunter River was robbed by bushrangers Jacob's mob but he was not there at the time. In September 1826 he wrote to Governor Darling about acts of outrage by blacks on his and neighbouring properties.

Assigned Convict Servants

Convicts assigned to David Maziere in 1825 included:

James Featherstone arrived on the Neptune in 1818
Thomas Hayes arrived on the Lord Sidmouth
John Read arrived on the Baring

These men probably helped to clear and cultivate 60 acres of paddocks and build stock yards that were completed by 1828.


David Maziere also owned a house and land in Watt Street Newcastle as well as other land including 560 acres near George Brooks' land between Maitland and Newcastle.

David Maziere may not have spent very much time at Annandale. He became a merchant in Sydney with head quarters at 108 Pitt Street Sydney and received a trust estate of 320 acres at East Bargo. He married Mary Graham of Parramatta in 1824 and purchased Major Oven's residence in Sydney in 1825. He was also called for jury duty in Sydney in this year for at least two cases.

Financial Difficulties

By 1827 David Maziere was in financial difficulties and declared insolvent. His land at Cockfighter's Creek, was to be sold as well as the estate Annandale. .....

The Sydney Gazette in December 1827 recorded the following: -

'Sales by Auction: Annandale Estate - By order of the Trustees appointed by the Supreme Court of New South Wales in the Matter of David Maziere, declared an insolvent.

All that Valuable Freehold property, called Annandale on the Main Branch of Hunter's River; consisting of two thousand and eighty acres and well known as Mr. Maziere's farm being bounded by the river for six miles on the east side and also by the river on the north and South and forming one of the most complete properties in the County of Cumberland.

Independent of the natural advantages of this fine estate, and its central situation (being equidistant from Wallis' Plains, from Patterson's Plains and from St. Patrick's Plains) Mr. Maziere has expended upon it within these two years a sum very little short of 1,000 pounds in the most judicious and substantial Improvements in capacious stock yards, excellent paddocks, clearing one hundred acres and throwing sixty acres into cultivation, for the support of the Establishment, which may now not only be carried on free of expense but afford one of the most genteel and independent incomes in the Colony.

To those Gentlemen or families arriving in the colony or to officers retiring from the Army there never was yet offered any thing so eligible or worthy of notice in that part of the settlement; and in the midst of the beautiful estates of Luskintyre and Windermere, the scenery exceed any thing even in England and the soil whether for agriculture or grazing, is not surpassed in the richest Districts of Hunter's River.

The Purchase money will be made as easy as possible, under the unfortunate circumstances under which the estate is brought to the hammer

In 1852 David Maziere was admitted to Parramatta gaol following an incident at Barratt's Hotel. (SMH 13 March 1852) and because of this his description was recorded. He was 5ft 6in, slight build, grey hair, blue eyes and had a scar on his neck. He gave his occupation as farmer.

David and Mary Maziere had three children - Andrew who died in infancy in March 1832; Hannah Boyd (possibly remained unmarried) and Clara Sarah Jane Walker, who married Matthew Smith in 1873. Mary Maziere died on August 23 1860 and David Maziere died on 14 July 1875 [9]

George Wyndham

In 1827 the Annandale estate had been sold to the recently arrived and well connected George Wyndham and re-named Dalwood.

George Wyndham was born in Wiltshire, England and educated at Cambridge. He met his wife Margaret Jay in Italy and married her in Brussels in 1827. Margaret was about 24 years of age and George 27 when they arrived in New South Wales on the George Home in December 1827. George and Margaret Wyndham had led cultivated lives in England however appear to have taken to their new life with enthusiasm.

Life at Dalwood

George Wyndham kept a Diary between the years 1830 - 1840.

He was already at Dalwood when the diary began in February 1830. In the first two years there are many entries about the weather conditions - rain, floods, thunderstorms and searing heat. There are details of his excursions such as on the 4th May 1830 when he and John Allman travelled to Newcastle where they visited the Valley of the Palms. He returned to Dalwood on 6th May and dined with Captain Aubin that same night. On 12th September he accompanied William Ogilvie from Merton to Holdsworthy Downs and then to the Burning Mountain. They returned via Segenhoe, St. Heliers and Merton and he was home by the 18th September 1830. In March 1831 he visited Port Stephens where he called on
Captain Parry and William Cromarty and in December 1831 he accompanied Rev. Wilton to the top of Tangorin. There was a steady stream of visitors as well - On 12th February 1830 Col. Dumaresq called on his way to St. Heliers; on 20th February Felton Matthew stayed with them for two days; George Townsend was a frequent visitor and John Allman and William Ogilvie also. Judge James Dowling and Helenus Scott as well as
James Reid, Rev. Wilkinson, William Harper, James Bettington and James Holman the Blind Traveller are also mentioned.

Interspersed with these many social occasions were his duties to serve in Court requiring him to travel to Maitland. On the occasion of Governor Darling's visit to Maitland in January 1831 George Wyndham took lunch with the Governor and Captain Dumaresq before he set them on the road to Glendon. Despite so many social events he still managed to concentrate on rural matters....He writes of the crops he planted and also notes on the work to construct living quarters, kitchen, dining room and fencing etc., so that the day the flagging in the kitchen was finished is recorded and when he first used the mill that John Portus had constructed also noted.

There are brief notes of the convicts who came to work Dalwood, often he refers to the women by their first names, the men by their surnames - one of the first entries in February 1830 is of ';Old Mary' who was sent to the Female Factory at Parramatta for robbery; and on 25th March he notes that Anne was sent away, she being pregnant. Jane Brett arrived with a black eye on 25th April 1830; Davis was turned into the government on 7th June 1830; Louisa Heskins arrived on 7th August. On April 1831 Elizabeth Hughes was assigned and on 12th July Ann Dent arrived at Dalwood.

Kitty Spalding came to Dalwood on 12th July 1830, perhaps to work.

There are personal notes as well - such as birthdays and the day in December 1831 when Alward Wyndham swallowed a pistol bullet; and the day Mr. Glennie came to tune their piano. [8]

Select here to read extracts from George Wyndham's Diary


When their first son Alward was born in April 1828 the Wyndhams were already residing at Dalwood. Just fourteen months later in June 1829 Weeta was born. George was born in 1831, William in 1832, John in 1833, Francis in 1835, Hugh in 1836, Laetitia in 1838, Alexander in 1840, Charles in 1842, Guy in 1844, Reginald in 1846 and Wadham in 1849.

George Wyndham was visited at Dalwood by Governor Sir Richard Bourke in April 1833 [6]. In 1834 another visitor to the estate found George at the front of their still unfinished stone house cleaning and loading guns in readiness should they be attacked by bushrangers who were thought to be in the vicinity. Margaret was described as one of the most beautiful and distinguished personages that the visitor had ever seen. On seeing her 'one might well think oneself in one of the most elegant parts of London, and her simple, elegant toilet was in keeping. And where do we find her? In the midst of the wilderness, in an unfinished, unadorned house in constant daily fear of robbers and murderers and surrounded by criminals.'

Assigned Convict Servants

Unlike some of his nearby neighbours, George Wyndham's convicts were treated humanely and on the occasion mentioned above he apparently had little to fear from the bushrangers who were absconding convicts. In June 1836 he was visited by missionaries James Backhouse and George Washington Walker who considered him 'enlightened'.

Below are some of the convicts who were assigned to George Wyndham together with the ship they arrived on and the year they were assigned. Some were assigned to or transferred between other estates belonging to George Wyndham.

Search the database for more information about these convicts :

Allen, James - Clyde - 1837

Allen, John B - Clyde - 1832

Bagley, Frances - Burrell - 1832

Ball, William - John - 1833

Boland, Anthony - Marquis of Huntley - 1828

Brien, John - Marquis of Huntley - 1828 

Brogan, James - Marquis of Huntley - 1828

Brown, Patrick - Marquis of Huntley - 1828

Brett, Jane - Louisa - 1830

Cannon, James - Ferguson - 1829

Casey, John - John Barry - 1828

Charleston, James - Mellish - 1829

Coleman, Joseph - Larkins - 1829

Connolly, James - Ferguson - 1829

Connor, James - John Barry - 1828

Cousins, James - Ferguson - 1829

Curtis, Nicholas - Lord Sidmouth - 1837

Davis, Obadiah - Marquis of Hastings - 1828

Dent, John - Vittoria - 1837

Dewsnap, Thomas - Asia - 1837

Draper, Grace - Mary - 1840

Eccles, Richard - Lord Lyndoch - 1837

Featherstone, James* - Neptune - 1825

Field, George - Marquis of Hastings - 1828

Finch, John - Captain Cook - 1837

Gamble, Jane - Mary - 1840

Gibbons, Michael - Larkins - 1837

Hayes, Thomas* - Lord Sidmouth - 1825

Heskins, Louisa - Roslin Castle - 1830

Hill, John - Lord Lyndoch - 1837

Hodwell, David - Norfolk - 1837

Howells, Maria - Competitor - 1828

Hughes, Elizabeth - Competitor - 1831

Humbly, Samuel and Jane - Posthumous 1841 (emigrants)

Irvine, Thomas - Boyne - 1828

Jenkins, James - Albion - 1828

Keen, Catherine - Lucy Davidson - 1828

King, Edmund - Employed as Superintendent - 1849

Lawless, Catherine - Gammon Plains - 1843

Lee, Herbert - Clyde - 1832

Lloyd, Isabella - Grenada - 1828

Lunn, John - Larkins - 1828

Lynch, Michael - Lonach - 1828

Malowney, Patrick - Lonach - 1828

Manning, Patrick - Blenheim - 1837

McGrath, James - John Barry - 1828

McInerny, Joseph - Eliza - 1837

McLennon, Michael - Isabella - 1828

Meredith, John - Java - 1837

Meredith, Robert - Java - 1837

Moore, Ann - Asia - 1831

Murtagh, John - Dorothy - 1828

O'Brien, James - James Pattison - 1830

Read, John* - Baring - 1825

Redman, James - Calcutta - 1837

Robinson, John - Clyde - 1832

Rourke, Francis - Calcutta - 1837

Smyth, Bridget - Pyramus - 1836

Spalding, Kitty - Visitor ? - 1830

Sweeny, Eugene - Castle Forbes - 1849

Syas, Ann - Burrell - 1832

Unwin, Francis - Albion - 1837

Urquhart, John - William Nicol (emigrant) - 1837

Ware, James - Katherine S. Forbes - 1830

West, Mary Ann - Fanny - 1833


George Wyndham decided to leave Dalwood under a manager, and with his wife and children set out with horses, cattle and sheep, a few trusted stockmen and a string of covered bullock-wagons to cross the New England plateau to the Richmond River. After an adventurous journey he took up a property known as Keelgyrah (Kilgra, near Kyogle, named after a Wiltshire village). Stocking the property with cattle and leaving it in charge of a member of the party, they next year recrossed the Dividing Range and took up a property near Inverell, named Bukkulla. By 1847 prices had risen and the party returned to Dalwood [7]


Margaret Wyndham died on 3rd September 1870 aged 65 years and George Wyndham died three months later on 24 December 1870. The Maitland Mercury recorded his obituary:

It is with great regret that we have to announce the death of Mr George Wyndham, the intelligence of whose sudden decease will awaken feelings of painful interest among a very wide circle of friends. Mr Wyndham enjoyed his usual good health up to about six o'clock on Saturday morning, when he was prostrated with some sudden illness, and died about an hour afterwards.

The deceased gentleman was the third son of Mr William Wyndham, of Dinton, England, who was intimately related to George Wyndham, 4th Earl of Egremont, and Baron Cockermouth. By the death of this Earl, in 1845, the peerage became extinct.

Mr Wyndham arrived in the colony about forty years ago, and lived to the advanced age of seventy one years. He was one of the pioneers of colonization and settlement in New South Wales, and he devoted his energies to the development of the natural resources of the country. As a grazier, he discovered and occupied several blocks of country new to pastoral pursuits, and, if we mistake not, he was the first to introduce the Hereford breed of cattle to this colony, of which breed we understand there is still a very fine herd at Dalwood. Mr Wyndham was also entitled to some distinction as an importer of blood horses and other descriptions of first-class stock, and the name of Wyndham has now become almost a household word in these colonies in connection with the vintages of Dalwood and Bukkulla.

Before emigrating to Australia, Mr Wyndham travelled a good deal on the Continent of Europe, and he was, no doubt, largely indebted to the information which he then gained for the success which afterwards rewarded his intelligent enterprise as a vigneron in this colony. He planted extensive vineyards in New England, and on the Hunter, and having embarked an ample fortune in wine growing, he was one of the first to demonstrate the remunerative character of that industry. His Dalwood and Bukkulla wines obtained a silver medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1867, which was the first prize gained in European competition by Australian wines. Of Mr Wyndham's private character, it is needless that we should remark further than to observe that it was without reproach He was beloved and honoured in his own family, and his many estimable qualities have endeared his name to all who were associated with him in the friendships and business of life

Notes and Links

1). Dalwood House at the Heritage Branch Website - design and construction of dwelling house and other buildings etc

2). Fruits of George's labour - Mike Scanlon

3). Dymphna Clark (trans. and ed.), Baron Charles von Hugel, New Holland Journal November 1833-October 1834, Miegunyah Press, 1994

4). Estate of the Earl of Egremont

5). Dalwood House 1887

6). Glenrock Lagoon Overview - Valley of the Palms

7). The life and labours of George Washington Walker, of Hobart Town, Tasmania By James Backhouse. - A visit to George Wyndham in 1836

8). The brothers and sisters of George Wyndham wrote to him regularly. These letters deal with early Australian experiences as well as the condition of England in the years 1827 to 1845. The letters came into the possession of the family in a remarkable way. It was a tradition in the family that there was a pillow case of old letters in the loft over the old Dalwood house, so in about 1900 Heathcote Wyndham, formerly of Buiwan, went to Dalwood, mounted the loft and found the old pillow case, letters and all. He took the letters to Bukkulla, carrying them from Glen Innes on his bicycle. Subsequently he handed them to Mrs. Albert Wright who was a grand daughter of George Wyndham and she prepared them for publication in 1927. ...Read extracts from the letters published in the Inverell Times in 1946

9) Sources


[1] Sydney Gazette 13 February 1822

[2] New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788-1825 Series: (NRS 937) Copies of letters sent within the Colony, 1814-1825 Item: 4/3507 Page: 438

[3] New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788-1825 Series: (NRS 897) Main series of letters received, 1788-1825 Item: 4/1770 Page: 161

[4] The Monitor 27 December 1827

[5] Maitland Mercury 29 December 1870

[6] Sydney Monitor 27 April 1833

[7] Judith Wright McKinney, 'Wyndham, George (1801 - 1870)'; Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,

[8] George Wyndham's Diary - State Library of New South Wales

[9] Gosford Times and Wyong District Advocate12 August 1952