Convict Ship Royal Sovereign 1835

 

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Embarked: 170 men

Voyage: 136 days

Deaths: 1

Surgeon's Journal: yes

 

Previous vessel: Lady McNaughten arrived 26 October 1835

Next vessels: Neva (wrecked)

John Barry arrived 17th January 1836

 

 

 

 

Master John Moncrief  Surgeon Superintendent Francis Logan

 


The Royal Sovereign transported convicts to Australia in 1834 (NSW), 1835 (NSW) and 1838 (VDL).

Some of the convicts arriving on the Royal Sovereign  had been tried and convicted at the Old Bailey and imprisoned at Newgate before being sent to the hulks. Select here to find out what it may have been like to be imprisoned in Newgate in 1835.

The Royal Sovereign was the next convict ship to leave England for New South Wales after the departure of the Lady McNaughten in June 1835. The Royal Sovereign departed England 29 July 1835 and arrived in Port Jackson on 12 December 1835 

The Guard consisted of 32 soldiers of 17th and 28th Regiments including Captain Wheeler, Ensign Hilliard, Sergeant Joyce, Corporal John Kelly, Private John Corrigan (died), Private Thomas Macgrath, Private John Lehy.

Other convict ships bringing detachments of the 28th regiment included the Lord Melville, Westmoreland, Marquis of Huntley Norfolk, Backwell, England, John Barry, Susan, Waterloo, Moffatt, Strathfieldsaye, Portsea and Lady McNaughten 

Other convict ships bringing detachments of the 17th regiment included the Adrian, Forth, Andromeda, Lady Feversham, Mermaid, Lord Melville, Hercules, Royal Admiral, Burrell, York, Edward, Eliza, Nithsdale

Passengers included seven women and eight children.

Of 169 Convicts who disembarked at Port Jackson 75 could read and write and 37 could read only.

48 were married in England before transportation

41 of the convicts left children in England.

48 were farm workers – servants and labourers

75 convicted of stealing

28 convicted of housebreaking

33 had prior convictions

144 received tickets of leave or certificates of freedom

 

Notes and Links:

Francis Logan was also employed as surgeon on the convict ships Fanny in 1833, Champion in 1827 and the  Mangles in 1837.

Bushrangers Richard Hicks and Charles Wood arrived on the Royal Sovereign

Hunter Valley convicts arriving on the Royal Sovereign in 1835

 

Find out more about some of the prisoners who arrived on the Royal Sovereign...........

 

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J K  L  M N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y Z


 

B

George Bailey

A father of two, George Bailey was convicted of Highway robbery at the Norfolk Assizes on 28 March 1835. Also convicted on this day at Norfolk Assizes were John Moss, Robert Blogg, Charles Wood and Edward Symonds. George had no previous convictions and was sentenced to transportation to Australia for Life. At thirty four years of age he was one of the older convicts on board the Royal Sovereign .

In 1844, nine years after his arrival in the Colony, he was issued with a Ticket of Leave for the district of Bathurst. In 1849 he was granted a Conditional Pardon.

 

William Bailey was born in  Stroudwater, Somersetshire.  He was arrested in Bath probably in the summer of 1835 and convicted at Bridgewater on 29th June 1835. According the the prison hulk records at Ancestry, William was 15 years old when he was sentenced to 7 years transportation for housebreaking and stealing money.

Also convicted on 29th June were William Bulpin, George Wall, Thomas Bulkin and Isaac Cottle.  All were sent to Illchester prison before being transferred to the Hardy convict hulk.   According to the indent, William Bailey was the shortest prisoner on board, standing at just 2' 8 1/2" in height. William and Isaac Cottle were transferred from the Hulk to the Royal Sovereign on 22nd July after spending just two days on the hulk.

William survived the voyage, faring better than some prisoners who became ill with scorbitus. William’s only illness in the 136 Days on board ship was catarrh for which he was treated by the ships surgeon Francis Logan on 8th August.

On arrival in Australia William Bailey was assigned to Scottish pastoralist Peter McIntyre at Maitland and was perhaps put to work on one of McIntyre’s stations.

William received his Certificate of Freedom on 23 March 1843 aged 21 years.

 

Thomas Balkin

Thomas Balken was an illiterate 16 year old errand boy when he was convicted of housebreaking and stealing a silver spoon and butter knife on 29th June 1835 at Bridgewater.  Along with George Wall, Isaac Cottle and William Bailey who were also convicted of various crimes that day, he was sent to Illchester Prison before being transferred to the Hardy prison hulk on 20th July. They were all transferred to the Royal Sovereign two days later. He was admitted to Newcastle gaol from Merton district in March 1842 and sent for trial. He was sentenced to Cockatoo Island as punishment for a felony.

 

Job Barnes 

Married with two sons, 25 years old Job Barnes was sentenced to 7 years transportation for stealing sacking after being convicted at the Wiltshire Assizes on 7 March 1835.

A farm servant before he was transported, he was assigned to James McDougall at Patrick Plains on arrival.

By February 1840 he had been granted a ticket of leave by the Patrick Plains Bench of Magistrates and by 1842 had received his certificate of freedom.

He may have been living in the vicinity of Black Creek in 1855 Online>

 

Joe Bean

Described as a ‘man of colour’ with black woolly hair, Joe Bean was a 21 year old house servant when he was convicted of stealing pork at the Bermuda General Assizes.  He was sentenced to 10 years transportation to Australia, along with three other servants from Bermuda, Abraham, John and Jim.

Joe Bean was assigned to John McDougall in the Muswellbrook area and absconded from service in August 1838. He managed to evade capture for a couple of months however was apprehended and probably punished in October of that year. He was living in Maitland in 1844 when he was convicted of robbery and sentenced to twelve months in irons. He may have been sent to the Bathurst district to serve his time as he received a Ticket of Leave for the district of Bathurst in 1850.  He received a colonial sentence of 2 years to be served at Norfolk Island and so did not receive another Ticket of Leave until 1855. This ticket was issued for the district of Ipswich.

Joe Bean died in 1858 Online > http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/28634591

 

William Bean

William Bean was born approximately 1813 in Kent, England. On 26th July 1835 at the Sussex Assizes he was found guilty of stealing sheep and sentenced to transportation for life. At 5’5 ¾” he was taller than most of the convicts on the Royal Sovereign and was described as having dark brown hair and eyes and blind in one eye. He gave his occupation as farm servant and shepherd and was assigned to James W. Low in the Bathurst district of NSW.

William received his ticket of leave for the district of Bathurst in 1844.

 

 

Joseph Bellamy

Joseph Bellamy was born in Bedminster, Somersetshire in 1814.  Joseph worked as a stockman and butcher. On 31 March 1835 aged 19 he was tried at the Somerset Assizes for housebreaking. He had no previous convictions and was sentenced to transportation for life. He was sent to Illchester prison to await transportation. Joseph was one of few who suffered no illness requiring medical treatment on the trip to Australia.

In 1837 he was assigned to Thomas Icely, a wealthy Sydney businessman, at Bathurst.  Icely had been granted 280 hectares of land in 1828 and as well as this acquired the use of vast areas of land over the following years. Joseph probably worked on Icely’s Coombing property at Carcoar. The work was often arduous and Icely (or his overseers) were known to use convicts to pull the ploughs.

Joseph received a Ticket of Leave for the district of Carcoar in February 1844 and a Conditional Pardon in March 1848.

 

Thomas Bellamy 

Thomas Bellamy was employed as a 19-year-old glass blower in London when he was arrested for picking pockets and sentenced to 7 years transportation. He was tried at the Central Criminal Court on 6th April 1835. He was sent to Newgate prison and transferred from there to the Leviathan hulk on 27th May. On 22 July he was transferred to the Royal Sovereign for transportation to New South Wales.

He suffered no illness on the voyage to Australia and on arrival was assigned to Edward Keeley at Paterson NSW. By 1840 he had received his Ticket of Leave for the Paterson district and his certificate of freedom was issued in 1843.

Soon afterwards he married Margaret Clarke who had given birth to their daughter Priscilla in 1842.  Margaret died in 1856 aged 46 years. Bellamy was witness in a Court case in 1849 when four men Fry, Watts Evans and Hawkins were accused of stealing tobacco from James Phillip's Bona Vista, Paterson.

He left the district in 1852, selling his furniture and the lease on a paddock and equipment he had used in the tobacco industry

 

 

Joseph Biddle

Joseph Biddle was convicted of highway robbery at Berkshire Assizes on 28 February 1835. 

Also tried on this day for highway robbery were 20-year-old William Smith and 20 year old Peter Plummer.  Joseph was 18 when he was sentenced to 7 years transportation.  Like many of his fellow convicts he had several tattoos on his arms and body - SB, SB, JB . Joseph received his Ticket of Leave in 1840 for the Port Phillip district and applied for permission to marry Ellen Maddigan who had arrived on the Aliquiss .

By 1842 Joseph had received his Certificate of Freedom.

 

 

Henry Biggs

Henry Biggs was born in Essex in approximately 1815. He was a farm labourer and shepherd when he was convicted of his second crime – stealing linen. He was then sentenced to seven years transportation.

On the voyage to Australia Henry suffered from scorbutus (scurvy). He was treated by surgeon Francis Logan in November 1835 and pronounced cured. Aged 20 Henry was assigned to John Ellis in Yass and his ticket of Leave was issued by the Goulburn Bench for the district of Yass in 1840.  

In 1853 Henry married Eliza Liddy in Yass.

 

 

 

Robert Blogg

Robert Blogg was one of 33 convicts on board the Royal Sovereign in 1835 who had prior convictions. He was considered a ‘bad character’ by the authorities and had already spent 6 ½ years in Bermuda as punishment for his first crime.

On 28 March 1835 he was convicted of his second crime, housebreaking and stealing copper for which he was sentenced to 7 years transportation.  On arrival in the colony he was to be kept at labour on the public roads. 

In July 1841 he absconded from the custody of a constable at Port Macquarie and his description was posted in the Government Gazette: Rope maker aged 27 from Norfolk; 5' 7 1/2"; dark complexion, brown hair, grey eyes, nose short and cocked, scar over right cheek, lost top of middle finger of right hand, several scars on left arm, two scars knuckle of forefinger of let hand.

 Robert Blogg received his Certificate of Freedom in 1842.

 

 

James Sevencroft Blomfield

James Sevencross (Sevencroft) Blomfield was born approximately 1794. By far the most educated convict on board the convict ship Royal Sovereign he attended Cambridge University and had been a Minister of the Church for 23 years before being tried at the Old Bailey and convicted of stealing spectacles. 

In 1818 he had been appointed to the Parishes of Beyton, Aldeburgh, and Triston cam Snape in Suffolk where he lived with his wife and three children.  He seems to have had very illustrious connections, the Bishop of London, Charles Blomfield being a relative who had once given his patronage for James to travel to the Cape of Good Hope. 

James Blomfield's downfall commenced after promoting a book he was to write and illustrate using information he gathered from his travels to the Cape of Good Hope. Here he had spent time in charge of the sons of Mr. Daniel, a Naval Officer. Back in England  James began in 1831 taking subscriptions for his work. He travelled  the countryside visiting clergymen and other town officials asking for 5 shillings subscription for his future work. James was ' a very fine looking man of gentlemanly exterior and imposing address' and he managed to continue collecting these subscriptions for over three years before he came across Mr. Charles Douglas. Mr. Douglas lived in Claremont Square, Pentonville and was working in his garden when James came to call.  Mr. Douglas was far too wily to be taken in by James and declined to subscribe to his work, however it was not until the next day that he found that his gold spectacles had disappeared. Coming across James in the Strong room of the Tottenham workhouse he questioned him about the spectacles and James admitted to pawning them for 10 shillings after he found the spectacles in his hat.  Mr. Douglas wasted no time in calling the constabulary.

Constable Joseph Foster accompanied James to a pawnbrokers in Grays-inn-lane near Kingscross kept by Mr. Burgess who positively identified him as the person who pawned the gold spectacles. James at this point denied stealing the spectacles saying they were in his hat by mistake. Had he been a thief he said he could have plundered to a considerable extent in the houses of the persons he visited to collect subscriptions for his book. Why, he asked would he have admitted to having the spectacles and taken the constable to the pawn shop if he had meant to steal the spectacles? In this James seems to be disingenuous. Perhaps this tactic had worked for him in the past. His respectable appearance and connections may have carried him through. This time however the authorities had twigged to his duplicity and were not to be so easily hoodwinked.  The Rev. George Hudson Thompson, Minister of Trinity Capel, Tottenham had subscribed to James' work for 5 /- and when he was told by an acquaintance that there was a notice in the Times cautioning people that a person answering James description was pursuing a course of imposition by false representation, he was furious. He left immediately to warn his neighbours against being similarly taken in.  While out on this mission he spotted James driving a 4 wheel chaise and caused him to be taken into custody.

At this point he must still have felt he would be believed. While he was undoubtedly worried abut his reputation, he probably did not believe he would be found guilty of any offence. He had, after all led a charmed life for the last three years. He must though have been concerned for his wife and child whom he had brought from Barnett with their maid servant, and who were in dire financial straights. James continued to plead his innocence throughout the hearing, speaking up for himself at what he probably considered were the injustices of the case - stating that the Magistrate had not taken into consideration the number of subscriptions that had not been collected as many put down their names that did not pay. And more desperately as the trial went on -  declaring that it had always been his intention to bring out his work and that he had in fact prepared drawings expressly for the purpose of embellishing it. He could produce the person who engaged to print it and he had agreed with him for 1000 copies for 150/-  and again - 'You will find the names of upwards 300 lawyers as subscribers to the work and if I meant to practice any imposition they are a class of men who would be very soon have found me out' . He pointed out that he had been forced to pay great portions of the subscriptions towards his necessities. The Magistrate was not to be convinced, pointing out that after receiving subscriptions for so large an amount James continued to collect more although the expense of the work was trifling and the printers costs would have been well covered. The Magistrate found that there was no moral doubt that James' intention was to raise money by false pretences on the credit of a work which it was more than probably never intended to bring out however, legal proof of a guilty intention was not sufficiently strong to found an indictment upon it the charge of fraud and so would not be persisted in. However in the charge of stealing spectacles the evidence was so strong that he had no choice but to commit James for trial.

On hearing of the situation and pleas to visit his ailing and now impoverished wife, the Bishop of London, Charles Blomfield, directed that James' expenses for visiting his wife be charged to his own expense. James was accompanied to visit his wife and child by the constable of Tottenham towards the end of June 1835 and soon after was conveyed to Newgate prison to await his trial which took place at the Old Bailey on 6th July 1835. James was sentenced to seven years transportation and 23 days later departed on the Royal Sovereign bound for Australia. Despite his age (41) he suffered no serious illnesses on the voyage to Australia although in September he was treated by the ships surgeon Francis Logan for Ringworm. His appearance on arrival must have been very different to the swarthy, fine looking gentleman who stood in the docks at the Old Bailey. His complexion was sallow and he is described as being a full two inches shorter than on previous occasions. His light brown hair had been shaved.  His convict garb would have been a sharp contrast to his Clergyman's suit of black that he was accustomed to in London. He must have been desperately worried about his family left behind and like his fellow companions worried about what the future would bring. Where would he be sent on arrival in the Colony? A well read man, he would have an idea of the conditions that awaited him. This knowledge would probably have been enhanced by other prisoners on board some of whom were on their second transportation to Australia. 

On his arrival in the Colony James found that he was to be forwarded to the penal settlement at Port Macquarie. In 1836 in Port Macquarie there were approximately 1300 people, 360 of them were free settlers often living great distances from the settlement itself. James travelled at times quite a distance from the convict settlement and considered that outlying settlers in the district had inadequate religious instruction and so in 1838, three years after his arrival, petitioned the Governor to be allowed to provide religious instruction in the form of lectures or readings to these distant settlers. He considered the crime for which he had been convicted quite trivial and still clung at this time to his ‘sacred calling’ and wished to improve the spiritual and moral condition of those around him.  This petition to lecture was denied by the Governor and presumably James continued in his convict occupation at Port Macquarie. 

James was granted a ticket of Leave for the District in 1840 and in 1841 applied for permission to marry 38-year-old Catherine Hogan a convict who had arrived on the Diamond. At this time he was living in the town of Port Macquarie. A Certificate of Freedom was granted in 1842

On 7th May 1846 (in England), his son Henry Sevencroft Bloomfield married Charlotte, daughter of Captain Spencer of Kilfenora, Ireland.

The Registry of Flash Men is a journal with details of the criminal underworld in Sydney during the 1840s. The volume was kept as an official surveillance record by William Augustus Miles who was Superintendent, then Commissioner, of Sydney Police in New South Wales from July 1840 to July 1848. Read the entry made for James Bloomfield here

 

 

John Bluford  .

John Bluford was born approximately 1815 to Mary (nee Priest) and James Bluford. A  stable boy in his native Bristol, he eventually became the licencee of the Butchers Arms, a hotel at Largs near Morpeth. 

Sentenced at Somerset Assizes on 31 March 1835 for housebreaking, he languished at Illchester Prison before embarking on the Royal Sovereign for transportation to Australia. Another prisoner, Joseph Bellamy was also convicted of housebreaking at the same time as John. Both gave their last abode as Bedminster, Somersetshire. 

On arrival in Australia John was assigned to Richard Jones at Paterson and in 1836 he married Marion McDonald. In 1838 aged 25, he applied for permission to marry Marion McLean, a spinster, who arrived on the Midlothian. They were married on 23 July 1838 by Reverend J. Dunmore Lang at Scots Church in Sydney. John and Marion had three children -  Mary b. 1838, Eliza b. 1839 and John b. 1842 before John was issued with his Ticket of Leave for the district of Maitland in 1844. 

In March of 1846, John now employed as a hutkeeper, at Andrew Lang's Breeza,  was tried at the Maitland Circuit Court for cattle stealing. He was found not guilty, however was remanded in custody on another charge of stealing an ox belonging to Ruth Phelps.

The Maitland Mercury reported that John Blueford was ordered to be discharged from his bail, as the Solicitor General informed the Court that the main evidence against the prisoner was an approver, who, in a former case, had not been believed by a jury and the Attorney General had consequently declined to prosecute.

By 1848 John was again applying for permission to marry – this time to 20-year-old Margaret Thompson who had arrived on the Portland. They were married by Rev. G. K. Rusden in Maitland. By 1850 he had received his conditional Pardon.

In the 1850's he was licensee of the Butcher's Arms at Largs 

John Bluford died aged 57 in 1872 at Largs.

 

 

Michael Bowker  -

Michael Bowker was 26 and a father of three when he was convicted for stealing money. He was no hardened criminal as this was his first conviction. 

Michael Bowker had been employed as a cotton spinner in Lancashire

His ancestors may also have worked in a cottage industry from their home before the invention of water powered machinery such as the spinning jenny that came to dominate the industry.  The resulting conditions for textile workers as their working place changed from home based to work in mills deteriorated. They worked long hours for very low wages.

Michael Bowker was convicted at the Chester Quarter Sessions 4 October 1833. Textile worker William Goss, who was to be transported on the Royal Sovereign was also imprisoned with Michael in 1833, eighteen months before they actually set sail for New South Wales.

Michael was sentenced to 7 years transportation and was assigned to Joseph Hawdon at Campbelltown .  He received a Certificate of Freedom in 1841.

 

 

William Braddick   - 23 yr old violin player from Somerset. He was sentenced to transportation for Life for sheep stealing. He was assigned to Henry Hall at Yass

 

 

Thomas Bragg

Thomas Bragg, convicted of stealing a copper boiler at the Essex Quarter Sessions in November 1833, was one of the 48 farm workers on the Royal Sovereign. He was 46 years of age and  a married father of seven.

He is described as having white blotches on the back of his lower right arm and scald marks below his knees.  He was one of many to suffer from scorbutus on the trip although was not treated until 13 December when the ship had already docked.  On arrival he was assigned to Messrs Maccarthur at Camden. He obtained a ticket of Leave for the district of Stonequarry on 7 September 1840

 

 

James Bravon was born in Sussex c. 1815. He was twenty two years when he was convicted of stealing handkerchiefs at the Portsmouth Quarter Sessions on 6th April 1835.  

He was assigned to P. King of Penrith on arrival. Three years later, the  Government Gazette posted his description when he absconded from Captain King - James Bravon per Royal Sovereign aged 25, tried Sussex, brickmaker complete; 5' 10", dark sallow complexion, brown and thin hair, chestnut eyes, two middle front teeth in upper and lower jaws apart, two small moles left cheek, JS seven stars inside lower right arm scar inside left thumb, forefinger of right hand contracted.

He received a Ticket of Leave in 1840.

In 1846 he was admitted to Darlinghurst gaol and sent to the iron gang at Wooloomooloo for 12 months for having stolen 3 pounds from George Evans.

 

 

James Broadbent

James Broadbent was a filesmith from Yorkshire and was convicted of housebreaking at Warwick Quarter Sessions. His Tattoos included - 7 stars, half moon man and flag and Sheffield coat of arms, inside lower right arm.  He was assigned to John Erskine who was employed as Clerk to the Bench of Magistrates at Maitland

 

 

Jabez Brown  

Twenty-nine year old ribbon weaver from Coventry who was convicted of stealing silk at the Warwick assizes. He was married with 3 children before transportation. Description: Missing upper tooth. He received a Ticket of Leave for Goulburn district in 1844

 

Benjamin Bryant was twenty years old - a boatman from Wiltshire when he was convicted of stealing a coat in January 1835 and sentenced to 7 years transportation.

He applied to marry Susan White in Bathurst district.

 

 

William Bullpin

William Balpin (Bullpin/Bulpin) was born in Durleigh, Bridgewater. He was employed as a farm servant when he was convicted of house breaking Somerset Assizes June 1835. He was sentenced to transportation for Life.

In the indent for the Royal Sovereign he is described as being aged 22 years of age and having irregular front upper teeth; tattoos - woman and EB inside lower right arm, woman and EC inside lower left arm; 5 large indented scars back right leg. He was considered a 'bad character' as he had been transported before and was to be kept at hard labour on the roads on arrival in Australia.

In March 1842 he was reported as having absconded from John Blaxland at Newington and of being apprehended in 1844.

He received a Ticket of leave for the district of Maitland in 1851 which was cancelled in 1852 for being absent from his district, and Ticket of leave for the district of Ipswich in 1856.

 

Samuel Bunce (Bounce) Was tried at Worcestershire aged 44. He suffered from vertigo on the voyage to Australia and died in the General Hospital Sydney soon after arrival on 31st December 1835.

 

Joseph Burrell Was a 29 year old single farm labourer convicted of pig stealing at Essex Quarter Sessions. He was assigned to John Eales, Maitland and granted a Ticket of Leave for the district of Maitland in 1841.

 

James Butcher had a prior conviction of six months in 1835 when he was sentenced to 14 yrs transportation at Suffolk Quarter Sessions for robbing a store house.

He was a 29 year old father of three and described as a farm worker and illiterate.

He was granted a Ticket of Leave for the district of Yass in February 1842.

 

 

C

George Cawston  was born Norfolk and brother to William. His Ticket of leave was granted in 1843 for the district of Penrith. His ticket was cancelled 1847 when he was found guilty of stealing a pair of boots and was restored in 1848.

 

William Cawston

William Cawston and his younger brother George were tried for housebreaking at Norfolk Quarter Sessions 13th January 1835. Life had already been unkind to William, a farm servant, who was left with two sons to raise when his wife died at a young age.

William was assigned to James Adair a settler at Paterson and received a ticket of leave for the district of Paterson on 13 January 1844, nine years to the day since he had first been sentenced.

The Paterson region had been taken up early in the settlement of the area with land grants to ex military and settlers with enough capital. William probably arrived in the Paterson area by March or April a time when the farmers of the district were busy preparing their fields for wheat sowing.  Settlers had great power over the convicts' lives. Some masters considered it an indulgence to allow their convicts to work up to 10pm at night to earn extra credit that they could exchange for tea, sugar or tobacco. Without this the convict would have had to exist on the rations provided by the Government which were inadequate. Settlers on the Paterson were also known to conduct Divine services on Sundays. Although this was a day free of labour the settlers/masters still had control over the convicts and they were expected to muster at midday to attend the services. This was done not only for moral benefit but to put a stop to the convict wandering further afield on this day and indulging in spirits, riot and ribaldry that rendered him unfit for duties the next day. The convict, who would be on foot could not hope to travel far enough unless he left at day break so the master used this as another means of controlling his work force. 

When William received his ticket of leave for the Paterson district he was then able to work to provide for himself. On the 15 February 1849, fourteen years after sentencing William received a Conditional pardon and in 1851 he married Elizabeth Kendall

 

 

John Charlewood

John Charlewood was convicted of stealing a sheep in Surry at the Surry Quarter Sessions on 9th February 1835. Also tried on this day for sheep stealing was thirty year old farm servant John Wicks.

Stealing livestock was considered a serious crime and they were both punished accordingly.  John was sentenced to Transportation for Life to Australia.  When he sailed on the Royal Sovereign on 29 July he left behind a wife, two daughters and a son.

While some convicts on board the Royal Sovereign suffered little illness, the Ships surgeon Francis Logan stated that John would not have lived another two days at sea. He had become dangerously ill with scurvy and was so weak he could not even sit up. His stomach was swollen, his skin discoloured and his appetite gone.  The surgeon administered Lime juice and preserved meat with the zest, the current cure for scorbutus, and when the ship landed John was sent immediately to the hospital on shore. 

John survived his ordeal and received a Ticket of Leave for the Bathurst district by the Bathurst Bench of Magistrates in September 1844. He received a Conditional Pardon in 1849

 

 

William Clay

Born in Warwick in 1815, William Clay was to spend the rest of his days far distant from Warwick's bustling streets where he worked as a shoemaker. After transportation he was sent to work  in the Hunter Valley's Patrick Plains and the isolated and lonely Liverpool Ranges . The Liverpool Ranges lay beyond the boundaries of the colony when William was assigned to John Earl at Patrick Plains.

John Earl  arrived on the 'Thalia' in the winter of 1823.  He brought with him upwards of £500 and extensive sheep farming experience.  He was granted 1500 acres and named his grant Glenridding. By spring of 1823 he had arrived at his holdings with his wife, children and assigned servants to begin sheep farming. 

In 1837, 14 years after his arrival in the colony, Earl was granted a license to depasture stock beyond the boundaries of the colony.  John Earl was just one of many who quickly took up the land beyond the boundaries (nineteen counties). These men were often wealthy and influential squatters but also among them were clergymen, school teachers, publicans – anyone in fact who could raise enough money for a flock and servants to keep them.  Governor Gipps introduced Squatter's licenses in 1836 and a £10 annual fee irrespective of the size of their tenure was charged.

Arriving in 1835, William Clay may have been sent to Liverpool ranges to work as a shepherd or hut keeper on one of Earl’s stations. These runs or stations  were manned by two shepherds who looked after the sheep by day and a hutkeeper who maintained the yards and hut and was responsible for the sheep by night. Their living arrangements would have been in a bark roofed hut close by the sheep enclosures. Usually the huts were 10 x 14 feet and made with split slabs. They consisted of one room with a dirt floor. A fireplace would be at one end and the sleep area consisted of beds made on sheets of bark lifted off the ground by logs of wood laid underneath the head and the foot. The lives of the hutkeepers and shepherds were often miserable and isolated.  Food and supplies were often inadequate and for those such as William who could read and write the shortage of reading material was another harsh reminder of their lowly position in the colony.

William Clay remained in the Hunter Valley area. In January 1844 aged 31 years old he received a ticket of Leave for the district of Scone which had been recommended by the Commonwealth Crown Land, Liverpool Plains. Sixty year old David Rose also received his ticket of Leave for the Scone area recommended by the Commonwealth Crown Land, Liverpool Plains. William received a Provisional Pardon in May 1845, 1846 and 1847 and by February 1849 had received a Conditional Pardon. He possibly died in Quirindi, NSW in 1888.

 

William Cocks  was a farm servant convicted of stealing sheep. He was assigned to J.S. Corse at the Vale of Clywdd in 1837 and was issued with a Ticket of Leave in 1844 for district of Bathurst and a Conditional Pardon in 1849.

 

William Collins was born in Essex and convicted of sheep stealing. A Ticket of Leave was issued for district of Queanbeyan in 1844 and a Conditional Pardon issued 1850.

 

Israel Cottle was born in Shepton Mallett, Somerset. A shoemaker's boy, he was convicted of stealing poultry and on arrival in Australia was assigned to Cyrus Matthew Doyle at Windsor.

Israel Cottle died in 1888.

 

John Couch Of St. Austell, Cornwall.

John Couch, a labourer was convicted with John Hoskin Giles of stealing 100lbs of tin ore,  the property of John Williams and others.

On arrival in Australia, he was assigned to John Jones at Turee, Cassilis. He may have been at Turee in 1837 when an assigned servant of Jones at Turee, Edward Tuffts murdered Jones by stabbing him in the groin with a pair of sheep shears.

A Ticket of leave was issued for John Couch in 1840 for the district of Cassilis.

He was probably the John Couch who was fined 40/- or 2mths in prison for assaulting Daniel McCarthy in 1849 in Maitland.

 

D

Charles Davies (Davis) was born in Southampton. He was assigned to William Sharp in Sydney on arrival in Australia. A description of him from the convict indent - 'Nose inclining to left side, lost three upper front teeth, scar center forehead, breast hairy, scar top of middle and 4th finger right hand, large scar back of left hand, scar right eyebrow.' 

He received aTicket of Leave for Maitland district in 1840.

 

 

Jonathon Davis  Trade: Butcher and clerk. Jonathon Davis was found guilty of embezzlement at Westminster Sessions of Peace. He was assigned to John Dixon in  Goulburn in 1835. A Certificate of Freedom was issued in 1842.

 

 

William Davis  -  fifteen year old errand boy convicted of picking pockets. On arrival in Australian he was assigned to Peter McIntyre at Maitland.  He was issued with a Ticket of leave for district of Maitland in 1842.

 

 

John Docking was a shepherd and farm labourer convicted of stealing money at Norfolk. He could read and write and was issued with a Ticket of Leave for district of Parramatta on 14th February 1840. He applied to marry Bridget Larkin in 1842.

 

E

William Eyres

William Eyres was sentenced to six months in prison in Wiltshire for larceny at age 19. On his second offence two years later he was sentenced to seven years transportation for stealing poultry.

On arrival in Australia he was assigned to Thomas Leiver at Richmond. His Ticket of Leave was issued for the district of Windsor on 14th February 1840. He married Mary Malone in 1842 and died in 1879 at Richmond.

 

 

Frederick Eley

Frederick Eley was a 35 yr old widower convicted of stealing a goose in Suffolk. His description -  red hair, red beard, grey eyes, arms freckled, 5' 5 1/".

A Ticket of Leave was issued for district of Patrick Plains in 1840 and he received a Conditional pardon in 1842.

 

 

Thomas Ellis

Thomas Ellis was a steam boiler maker's boy. He was 16 years old and could read and write. He was convicted of picking pockets in London. On arrival he was assigned to James Hassall in Yass. He received a Certificate of Freedom 1842.

 

 

F

George Filewood

George Filewood was a brother of James Filewood, also a convict on the Royal Sovereign. George was a boot maker aged 29 with a sallow pock-pitted complexion, brown hair and grey eyes. He had lost his front upper tooth.  He was tried at Middlesex in 1834 and convicted of stealing boots from his employer.

From the London Times:

Marlborough Street - Yesterday George Filewood, a journeyman in the employ of Mr. Lloyd, boot and shoe maker No. 30 Coventry Street, Haymarket was brought up for final examination, charged with having plundered his employer at different times of a vast quantity of property, and Susannah Filewood, his wife, was charged with Having received the property, well knowing it to have been stolen.

Upwards of 2- pawnbrokers were in attendance with portions of the stolen property, one of whom had no less than 38 pairs of boots and shoes in his possession, pledged by the prisoner and his accomplices, and by means of the pawn brokers between 100 and 150 pairs of boots and shoes were brought forward and identified by Mr. Lloyd.

The prisoner had been somewhere about 18months in his service and from the dates of some of the pledges it was quite evident he had commenced robbing his master shortly after he got into his employ. The stock of Mr. Lloyd being very extensive afforded peculiar facilities to the prisoner to commit depredations and likewise to render detection almost impossible. Suspicion, however, did arise against the prisoner in consequence of his having been seen with a check in his possession, and his having offered to lend a considerable sum of money to his fellow workmen. These circumstances, coupled with others of a general nature, led to the detection of the extensive system of robbery carried on by him for so long a time with impunity.

Stephen Smith, shop man to Mr. Lloyd, said his suspicions having been awakened, he determined to watch his movements closely. On the Thursday before his apprehension he saw the prisoner attempt to put a pair of boys shoes into his trousers pocket, but upon observing that witness had his eye upon him he threw the shoes down again. On Friday he again tried to pocket another pair of shoes, but these he put down as soon as he saw witness watching him. On Saturday he took a pair of gentleman's pumps from a heap on the floor and unperceived, as he imagined, put them into his pocket. Witness went up to him and asked him if he had any shoes in his pocket to which the prisoner replied "Certainly not". Witness then mentioned to him what he had seen, and the prisoner admitted he had put a pair of umps in his pockets, but asserted they were old ones. Ultimately he produced a pair of new pumps from his pockets, begging forgiveness and saying he hoped witness would not tell Mr. Lloyd, and that he might go home and be safe and rest happy. Witness mentioned the circumstance to Mr. Lloyd on the following Monday who caused the prisoner be taken  into custody.

Policeman C177 said he went to 3 St. Albans place Lambeth where the prisoner lodged and there found a pair of boots and a pair of shoes which Mr. Lloyd identified. A duplicate for another pair belonging to Mr. Lloyd was also identified. A more minute investigation being instituted, the property already specified was found in the hands of the pawnbrokers, pledged by the two prisoners and a person not in custody.

The cases of seven of the pawnbrokers were considered to be sufficient, and their evidence only was taken. The greater part of the others applied for permission to give up the property which was not refused.

The prisoners were ordered to stand fully committed but they were directed to be brought up on the following week for a purpose connected with the same offence.

Mr. Lloyd begged leave to put a question to the male prisoner respecting a large sum of money which he understood was in his possession.

Mr. Conant said Mr. Lloyd might, if he pleased put the question, but he must caution the prisoner not to make any reply which would criminate himself, because he need not answer it if he chose.

Mr. Lloyd then asked the prisoner if he had not a considerable sum of money in his possessions, as he had been informed that he the prisoner had offered to lend one of the workmen 20 pound.

The prisoner said he had no money whatever.

Mr. Lloyd then inquired about a check which he had got changed.

The prisoner gave an explanation which Mr. Lloyd said he should be able on a future day to prove was untrue. By advice of their solicitor, the prisoners declined saying anything further, and were removed London Times 12 July 1834. 4a

George Filewood was assigned to James Atkinson at Parramatta. His Ticket of leave was issued in 1840 however in 1848 he was sentenced to six months in the iron gang after being convicted at Sydney Quarters Sessions of stealing silver money in a dwelling.

 

 

James Filewood

James Filewood was a hairdresser convicted of receiving stolen goods. He was Assigned to H. Delion, Sydney. A Ticket of leave was issued in 1840 and cancelled in the same year for disorderly conduct. He married Ann Willis in 1841.

 

 

Robert Filling was a twenty five year old widower from Wiltshire and was employed as a Letter sorter. He had no prior convictions and could read and write. He received a life sentence for stealing hay.

A Ticket of Leave was granted in 1845.

 

 

Robert Fitch

Nineteen year old Suffolk farm labourer Robert Fitche was convicted of house breaking at Suffolk Quarter Session on 8th April 1835. On arrival he was assigned to John Marquett Blaxland at Patrick Plains and was issued with a Ticket of Leave for the district of Cassilis in 1842.

Robert Fitch was a witness a at the trial of Thomas Grantham in 1844. Grantham had been indicted for forgery in having uttered forged orders at Jerry's Plains in August 1843 with intent to defraud Richard Alcorn. Fitch testified on Grantham's behalf, stating that although he could not read well he knew it to be a 2 pound cheque on the Commercial Bank. The Maitland Mercury recorded that Fitch was examined by the Attorney General, who elicited a very humorous spelling from him on the cheque. http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/665174

 

George Fitness

Married indoor servant and groom convicted at Central Criminal Court in 1835.

William Taylor and George Fitness were indicted for stealing on the 22nd March, 5 curtains, value 12s; 1 decanter, value 2s 6d; 6 glasses, value 9s 4 cups value 6d; 4 saucers value 6d; 3 knives, value 6d; 3 forks, value 6d; 3 spoons value 3d; 3 brushes, value 2s; 1 curry comb value 6d and 1 lamp, value 6d; the goods of Richard Keily, the master of the said William Taylor.

William Pearce. I am a policeman. On 22nd March at 10 o'clock at night, I was in Cockspur street, Charing cross about a quarter of a mile from the prosecutor's I met Fitness carrying this carpet bag, with this property in it I asked him what he was carrying he said his masters clothes - I asked him where he brought it from - he said from a house in Pall Mall - I asked him the number of the house in Pall Mall; he could not tell me I said then I should take him to the station house - he said rather than go there he would go back to the house he had brought it from - as we returned he said he brought it from No 6 Pall Mall - we went down Pall Mall and found that was false - I told him I should not leave him till I saw whether he ws right or wrong  - he then took me to No. 6 Cleveland row which is the prosecutors - he rang the area bell and Taylor came up the area steps to answer the bell - I said I have stopped this man with a carpet bag, which he says is his master's clothes, and that his master has been dining here' Taylor said,' It is quite right, I am sorry you detained him, he ought to have been home by this time with his master's clothes; the servant girl came up and also said it was right I said, 'Then I shall let him go; he got about twelve yards form the house when the prosecutor came out of the street door, and asked what was the matter I told him, and he said, "I know nothing about a carpet bag; where is the man" I said, "There he goes" he hearing me speak to Mr. Keily, turned into Russell Court. I followed but could not see him - I ran to the end of James Street, but could not find him - returned, and said I believed he had escaped (the gentleman said the court was no thoroughfare, and he must be there - I returned again and called brother officer to come wit his lantern, and at last I saw him run - I pursued after him he was making his way across St. James street, - a man stopped him - I took him back to the court and asked him for the bag he was carrying - he said he knew nothing of any bag - it was found and brought to me - I took possession of it - I detained him till Mr. Keily brought Taylor there in custody - the bag was locked - it was broken open and the articles, named in the indictment, found in it - the spoons are not silver.

Cross examined by Mr. Doane

Q. Was Mr. Keily present when the bag was opened. A. he was. Fitness was flurried when I stopped him - Cleveland row is nearly in a line with Pall Mall the female servant also said, it was all right - I am quite certain Fitness is the man.

Mr. Richard Keily. I live in Cleveland row. Taylor was my footman he had been so between three or four months - I know nothing of Fitness - my attention was attracted by the conversation with the officer, and as so many robberies had been committed about that time I was determined to see about it - I said no gentleman had dined at my house that day - the moment Fitness heard me speak, he took to his heels and went down the court, - I knew he could not get out of the court it being no thoroughfare - he was taken at last, and I took Taylor to the station house - the property in the bag is mine some of it I swear positively to and believe it all to be mine.

Cross examined Q. What can you swear positively to. A. The glass was cut to match some I had of the same pattern, and the number corresponds with what is missing - I had not seen the curtains for a month - I missed none of my plate but a tea spoon and two dessert spoons - Taylor had the care of my plate the bag is not mine

William Baker. I am a policeman. I heard the alarm; I took Taylor into custody, concealed behind the back kitchen door in the house.

Taylor Guilty. Aged 30 - transported for fourteen years

Fitness Guilty. Aged 27 - transported for seven years.

George Fitness was assigned to George Cox at Penrith. He died in 1837 in Windsor Hospital

 

 

James Flower was born in Frome, Somerset. He was employed as a clothier and was convicted of housebreaking when he was 19.  He received a life sentence and was incarcerate in Illchester Prison to await transportation  

  Illchester prison

 

 

Robert Fry -

Farm labourer convicted of stealing cheese at Wiltshire Assizes. His description was given as - sallow complexion with dark brown hair. He was assigned to James Adair at Paterson and received a Ticket of Leave for the Paterson district in 1843. A Conditional Pardon was granted in 1848.

Robert Fry came to the rescue of Mary Dobson near Edward Gostwyck Cory's estate at the Upper Paterson in June 1846 when aboriginal Tommy Tombo attempted to rape her. She had been walking through the bush picking tea tree for a broom when she was attacked. Robert Fry heard her cries for help and came to her assistance.

In 1849 he was found not guilty of stealing tobacco from the factory of Alfred William Phillips at Bona Vista. Witness at his trial was Thomas Bellamy.

 

G

Richard Garland

Shoemaker born in Devonshire. He was assigned James Hall in Windsor on arrival in Australia. A Ticket of Leave for district of Windsor was issued in 1841.

Richard Garland married Mary McAteer in Sydney.

 

 

Joseph Hoskin Giles

Miner from Cornwall. On arrival he was assigned to the Australian Agricultural company in Newcastle. He received a Ticket of Leave in 1840

 

 

William Goldsmith  -

Fifteen year old chimney sweep from Surry. He could read and write and was convicted of stealing linen at the Middlesex (Westminster) Session of Peace on 14th May 1835.

His description was given as 4' 7 1/2 " with a dark sallow complexion and brown hair and eyes. Right eye heavy. WC inside lower right arm; glass, ES, inside lower left arm; 2 blue dots back of left hand, mark of a burn left foot.

William was assigned to Thomas Icely in Bathurst on arrival and received a Certificate of Freedom in  1845.

 

 

Thomas Goodwin  -  

23 year old farm Servant from Wiltshire convicted of highway robbery. He was an Epileptic. Thomas received a Ticket of Leave for Yass in 1840 and a Certificate of Freedom in  1842.

 

 

William Goss was born in county Westmeath. He was forty seven years old and employed as a weaver. He was married with five children and was convicted of receiving stolen fustion at the Chester Quarter Sessions in 1833. His description included - 'Red whiskers, breast and arms much freckled, top of fourth finger of right hand had contracted. '

William was assigned to the Hospital at Windsor on arrival.

He received a Ticket of Leave for district of Windsor in 1840.

Index to Convict Bank Warrants 1837 - 1870 - William Goss, Royal Sovereign, Warrant no 40/64. Condition - Free, Reel 596. Item 4/4547

 

 

 

William Grant

38 year old warehouseman who could read and write when he was convicted of stealing coats at the Central Criminal Court on 11 May 1835.

On arrival he was assigned to J. Jamieson at Goulburn. A Ticket of Leave was issued in 1840

 

 

John Green

Soldier of the 47th Regiment convicted of desertion in Gibraltar aged 21 years. He was born in Yorkshire and had a ruddy complexion with brown hair and grey eyes and a scar above the left cheek bone.

John Green was assigned to Gregory Blaxland at Merton in 1836/37 and by 1840 assigned to John Blaxland.

John Green was part of a gang of bushrangers in the district of Gammon Plains in 1840. The gang included  James Martin, James Mason who were assigned servants to Mr. Blaxland and James Walker, Thomas Kievers, James Howard and Robert Rawson who were assigned to Mr. Bettington. They committed robberies on 9th March and Green was possibly present on the 23rd March when the house of Henry Pelham Dutton was robbed and servant John Johnson shot dead.  Read more about the gang here

He may have been the John Green who was murdered by a blow to the head by Patrick Maloney after a drunken brawl in July 1849 near Falbrook.

 

 

William Greig

Twenty four year old town labourer convicted of stealing clothes and sentenced to 7 years transportation. Married with a previous conviction of 6 months, he had dark Sallow complexion with brown hair and hazel ' full ' eyes.

Greig was assigned to William Cape at Brisbane Waters in 1836 and was employed at farming work. He was also sent to work for Cape's sons when the need arose such as at harvest time.

 

 

Richard Grose

Convicted at Cornwall Quarter Sessions on 6th January 1835 with Joseph Hoskin Giles, both labourers of St. Austell, of stealing 300lbs of tine ore the property of John Williams and others. Both Giles and Grose were transported for seven years.

Richard Grose was a 28 years old farm labourer and miner and father of three sons when he was convicted. On arrival, he was assigned to the Australian Agricultural Company and sent to work in their coal mine at Newcastle.

He received a Ticket of Leave for Newcastle in 1840.

 

Joseph Grout

Employed as a horse breaker in Surry. He was 19 years old when he was found guilty of stealing boots and sentenced to 7 years transportation at the Surry Quarter Sessions.

His description included: Scar betwixt the eyebrows, large round scar right temple, heart inside lower right arm, mark of chilblains back of both hands, dove, JG hear, darts, and a wreath inside lower left arm, long scar back of middle finger of left hand large burn mark on right leg.

He was found not guilty of robbing George Robely of some silver in 1846 in Sydney. Catherine Barter was found guilty of the crime.

 

Timothy Guest

Employed as a farm servant and shepherd. He was convicted of highway robbery at the Wiltshire assizes and sentenced to transportation for life.

On arrival he was assigned to James Atkinson at Molongolo. He was 20 years old and could read.

 

 

H

Thomas Harley - Twenty nine year old chair and cabinet maker convicted of stealing tea. Native place Kent and could read and write. Dark pock pitted complexion and dark brown hair; 5'1";  On arrival Thomas Harley was assigned to James Templeton in Sydney.

Thomas Harley died in Sydney General Hospital in 1837 aged 31.

 

 

William Hall

William Hall was employed as a butler at the house of Charlotte Collins in Marylebone. He was 38 and a father of five and could read and write. Along with Martha Handcox, a lady's maid employed in the same household, he was convicted at Central Criminal Court of robbery. Read the full trial at The Proceedings of the Old Bailey Online.  They were both sentenced to transportation for life.

In the convict indents of the Royal Sovereign, his native place was given as Staffordshire. He was 5' 4 3/4", and had a dark complexion, brown hair and brown eyes. Cast outward in right eye, carroty whiskers, raised mole on left cheek.

William Hall was assigned to Henry Dangar in 1836/37 at Invermein. A Ticket of Leave was issued for the district of Scone in 1844.

 

William Harrington

William Harrington - twenty nine year old grocer from Oxfordshire convicted at Surry Quarter Sessions of stealing scales in 1835. William Harrington could read and write and was married at the time of his conviction. In his notes it is recorded that he was considered a bad character as he had been transported before. On arrival in the Colony he was to be kept at hard labour on the public roads.

His description stated that he had a sallow and pockpitted complexion with dark brown hair mixed with grey. His eyes were hazel and the top of his head was bald.

In 1836/37 he was assigned to Goat Island.

In November 1839 the Government Gazette posted a wanted notice when he absconded from the service of Charles Long* at Paterson. He was apprehended however absconded again the following year in the district of Patrick Plains.

By 1842 William Harrington had been issued a ticket of leave for the district of Paterson and for Windsor in 1843.

*Charles Long may have been Charles Towers Long, son in law of James Mudie

 

George Harris

22 yr old blacksmith from Wiltshire convicted of stealing hay. He was single and could read and write. No previous convictions were recorded and he was sentenced to 7 years transportation.

George Harris was assigned to Samuel Blackman in the Cook district in 1836/37 and received a  Certificate of Freedom in 1843.

His description included:  mole left cheek, EBPW, 1834 inside lower right arm, 3 illegible letters back of left wrist, anchor and H back of left hand, scar inside left wrist.

 

 

John Harris

46 yr old father of eight convicted of stealing geese. He was listed as a farm servant, shepherd, well sinker and brickmaker. Native place -  Hampshire - convicted at Sussex Q.S.

John Harris was issued Ticket of Leave for district of Wollongong in 1840

 

 

John Hazel

30 yr old married father of two convicted of sheep stealing in Suffolk.

John Hazel was assigned to James Hale at Patrick Plains in 1836/37 and was Issued with a Ticket of leave for district of Patrick Plains in 1845

 

 

Joseph Headley

Many of the convicts on board the Royal Sovereign had no previous convictions. This was not the case with Joseph Headley who was an habitual criminal.   When he arrived in July 1835 it was his second voyage to Australia as he had already been found guilty of housebreaking in Norfolk and transported on the Sesostris for seven years.  Even then aged 22 he already had two prior convictions. 

When he arrived in Sydney on the Sesostris in 1826 he was assigned to the Superintendent at the Parramatta Factory. In the shipping indents which are completed on arrival in Australia, he gave his native place as Sydney.

By 1832 he must have been declared free as he travelled back to England on the ship Portland. He found it difficult to stay out of trouble however and by June 1835 he was again in Court in Norfolk, this time charged with stealing boots. He was once again found guilty and sentenced to 14 years transportation.  He was considered a recalcitrant convict and on arrival was assigned to Goat Island. Here convicts were constructing the Queens Magazine and barracks from sandstone quarried from the eastern side of the island. Also in the barracks area were kitchen and cooperage. These convicts worked in ironed gangs. The building of the Magazine was not completed until 1839 and when it was finished it measured 100ft. x 25 ft. There were massive buttresses supporting an enormous arched roof. Joseph probably worked on the Magazine until it was finished.  He received a ticket of leave in 1842 for the district of Yass so possibly had been forwarded to that area to work on roads after the Magazine was completed. 

He seems to have stayed out of trouble after this as in 1850 he received a Certificate of Freedom.

 

Richard and Henry Henley

Richard 19, and his brother Henry 17, were charged with stealing nine chairs on 21 April 1835 from their employer Harriet Augusta Tanner. The chairs were valued at 11 pounds 11 shillings and made of Honduras wood. Harriet Tanner was a widow who made her living by manufacturing furniture. She lived in New Street, City Road and employed Henry on a casual basis.

On the 21st of April,  Henry was employed to assist Mrs. Tanner move an easy chair and and eight dining room chairs from Cheapside to High Street, St. Giles.  While Mrs. Tanner was conducting her business,  Henry disappeared. She returned to the truck to see Henry just turning into Oxford Street. Although she tried to follow him, he managed to escape and when he didn't return by 8 o'clock she notified the police. When the police investigated, they found that Henry's brother Richard had sold the furniture to William Smith who lived at No 94 York Street, Westminster £6.

Richard and Henry  pleaded guilty and  although Mrs. Tanner's brother Frederick Henry Brown gave Henry a good character they were both sentenced to seven years transportation.

After arrival in Australia, Richard was assigned to Edward Stanton in Raymond Terrace. He he obtained a Ticket of Leave in 1840 for the district of Port Stephens, and applied to marry Mary Chapman at Paterson. In 1842 he was issued with a certificate of freedom.  Their two first children, Richard Joseph and Henry were born in 1841 and 1845 while the family lived near Singleton. When John was born in 1848 they were living in Pitt street Sydney. When James William (1850) and Caroline Victoria, 1853 were born, Richard was living in Goulburn Street, Sydney and working as a sawyer.

Richard also tried his hand at goldmining and later became a hotelkeeper at Wattle Flat where he died in 1855.  He was buried at Sofala and three years later his widow married James Dyson. (Australian Biographical and Genealogical Records Series 1 1788 - 1841)

 

Robert Heyward

18 yr old weaver convicted of picking pockets. Convicted at Central Criminal Court and sentenced to 7 yrs transportation.

Robert Heyward was issued with a Ticket of leave for Bathurst district in 1840

 

Richard Hicks

Standing No: 35-3029

Age: 20

Read and Write: Yes

Religion: Protestant

Single

Native Place: London

Trade: bookbinders boy

Crime: stealing coat

Tried: Central Criminal Court

Sentence: 7 years

Previous convictions: none

Height: 5’3 ¼”

Complexion: sallow and freckled

Hair: Dark brown

Eyes: dark chestnut

Particular marks: Small hairy mole right check; anchor, WR on upper, crucifix inside lower right arm; scar back of right thumb, WR on upper, man smoking inside lower left arm.

Richard Hicks  was convicted of robbery with violence at Millers Forest in 1845. Select Hicks, Pyzer & Wood to to find out more

 

 

John Higgins

Twenty seven year old labourer convicted of stealing clothing (one cap one coat five waistcoats one pair of breeches 4 pairs of stockings and three shirts)  from the house of  farmer Thomas Norris,. John Higgins when testifying stated:

'as I was coming from Evingham across to Burtle I was going home (and) I saw this bundle tied up in a rick barrow. I took it up and put on the coat and hat and left my own in the same place'

He had one previous conviction of 6 months and was sentenced to transportation for life. He was assigned to R.P. Jenkins at Berrima and received a ticket of leave for the district of Yass in 1844

 

 

William Higgott

20 year old stable boy convicted of stealing a watch at Southhampton Assizes. Assigned to G.H. Woodhouse at Yass 1836/37

 

John Hoare

Twenty four year old  farm servant John Hoare was convicted of Highway robbery at Southampton assizes on 3rd March 1835 and sentenced to transportation for Life.

On arrival he was assigned to William Osborne at Cassilis and in 1844 issued a ticket of leave for the district of Windsor. This was altered to the district of Maitland on 2 September 1844.

He may have been the John Hoare who was employed as a cook at the Black Horse Inn at East Maitland in 1847 and who was buried in the East Maitland cemetery in March 1848.

 

John Holloway

15yr old baker's boy convicted of stealing lace at Devonshire Quarter Sessions.

Assigned to Thomas Icely at Bathurst. T/L issued in 1841. Cert of Freedom 1844.

 

Henry Hornblower

Native of Somersetshire aged 20. Employed as Clerk to Bench of Magistrates. Convicted of robbing his master and sentenced to 7 yrs transportation.

Assigned to Liverpool Hospital 1836. Ticket of leave issued for the district of Bathurst in 1840.

 

John Howard

Twenty-five year old married farm servant convicted of house breaking at Suffolk Quarter Sessions. Assigned to William Lee at Bathurst

 

Thomas Hughes

Thirty three year old ivory worker convicted of robbing his employer Assigned to John Marquett Blaxland at Patrick Plains. Ticket of leave for the district of Patrick Plains issued in 1839

 

 

Frederick Palmer Hulme

Fifteen year old Frederick Palmer Hulme was convicted of stealing money from his master. He was apprenticed to Mr. Hunter at 102 The Strand, London as a compositors boy and when he stole the 'considerable sum of money' at 10am on 17th April he fled to his uncle's residence in Spitalfields. However a notice was placed in the Police Gazette five days later giving his description as being dressed in black and of stout build and he was soon apprehended.

Frederick, born in Warwickshire and christened on 2nd September 1817at Holy Trinity, Coventry Warwick  was the son of a school teacher, Herbert Allen Hulm and his wife Ellen Louisa Palmer. Frederick had their initials tattooed on his arm together with the date 18.8.1834. This was Frederick's first conviction however he was sentenced to transportation for Life.

Frederick was sent to the Port Philip District after arrival. A notice was posted in the Government gazette of 15 November 1837. - Robert Sowerby, Frederick Hulme and Dominick Sampson had all absconded from C.H. Ebden at Port Phillip in September 1837.

Frederick had valuable skills and he was sent to work in the government Printing Office in the 1840s. In 1843 he was given a ticket of leave and allowed to remain in the district of Sydney so long as he remained in the service of the Government offices He was considered one of the best compositors according to William McRow of the government Printing Office. He held a Government ticket of leave and was paid one shilling and 9 d. per diem.  When he left the printing office in May1843 his payment of 1 shilling and 9d. ceased.

In 1842 when Frederick was 24 years old, he applied to marry Elizabeth Jane Henderson who had arrived on the Heber aged 22. They married on 8th November 1842 in Sydney and their first son Charles William was born 1842 at Parramatta, quickly followed by George Herbert who was born  in 1843 in Sydney. On 11 March 1844 his ticket of leave was altered for Queanbeyan and Frederick and Elizabeth's next two children Ann Isabella and Frederick Cornelious were born in Duntroon in 1845 and 1848.

Frederick received his Conditional Pardon in 1848. He died on 3 January 1863 in Swan Hill Victoria when the eldest of his four children was twenty one years old. Many of his grandchildren were born in the Wagga Wagga and Junee districts.

 

 

J

John Jackson

Native place: Newcastle upon Tyne.

Assigned to John Hickey, Maitland

 

 

John Jackson

Born in Suffolk.

Assigned to James Collington, Inverary

 

 

Thomas Jenman

Born Essex. Assigned Thomas Hyndes, Sydney.

 

 

John Jennings alias Stadthurst

Widower. Scene and Herald painter, midshipman and preacher born in Lemington, Hants.

In February 1835, the Police Gazette carried a notice for John Jennings apprehension after he absconded from his lodgings at No. 1 Margaret - Buildings, Bath, several days earlier stealing  a large Bible valued at £5  and other property consisting of a decanter, a quantity of drinking glasses and glass sugar basin  belonging to Mr. Gregory. He was also accused of stealing a watch belonging to Leonard Cozens.  He was 24 years old about 5'3" dark complexion, the mark of gun powder about his right ear and cheek, wearing a black frock coat, black waistcoat, black or mixed trousers and crape on his hat; he was seen the same day he absconded on the Cheltenham Road and was apprehended at Marlborough within a couple of weeks

At his trial Thomas Graham stated that the Bible in question was his property and he lent it to Jennings on Monday the 26th January, as Jennings was in the habit once a week of having a number of persons coming to his room to hear him preach and had told Graham that his own was so small he could not read out of it. He was said to be a Preacher of the Baptist persuasion and preached at a chapel on Rush Hill every Sabbath Day.

John James Jennings was sentenced to 7 years transportation and was assigned to the government in the Port Macquarie district on arrival.


Jim House servant from Bermuda. Ticket of Leave for Maitland district


John  


John Alexander Johnson

19 year old labourer from Surrey convicted of robbing his master. Find out more at Central Criminal Court June 1835.

On arrival in Australia he was assigned to William Brooks, at Newcastle and was issued with a ticket of leave for the district of Newcastle in 1840.

He married Mary Clement  who had arrived on the Sir Charles Forbes soon after receiving his ticket of leave. In 1843 Mary was charged with gross insolence and disorderly conduct on premises of George Jackson at Newcastle and sentenced to 14 days solitary confinement.

 

K

Jacob King -  Jacob King was born in Cambridgeshire -  He was twenty two when convicted of stealing poultry at the Norfolk Quarter Sessions on 13th January 1835. He was sentenced to transportation for life.

Jacob King was listed in the New South Wales Government Gazette in June 1838 as having absconded from William Lithgow at Lake George three months previously. 

He was Issued with a ticket of leave in 1846.

 

Daniel Keefe  19 year old Chimney sweep from Surrey convicted in May 1835 for stealing clothing. He was sent to Horsemonger gaol.

A Certificate of Freedom was issued in 1843.

His description included - a Scar top of left side of forehead, scar under left ear, scar cap of left knee, scar outside small of right leg.

 

Robert Keevil was born in Kilmington Somerset. He was convicted of stealing a calf when he was 52 and when he departed England he left behind five children. He was granted a Ticket of Leave for district of Bathurst in 1844.

His Description included: Lost canine teeth in upper jaw and left side of under jaw. Forefinger of right hand contracted

 

John Kemp -  Farm servant aged 28 convicted of stealing grain. His father had been sent to Van Diemans Land in 1815.

John Kemp was issued with a ticket of leave for the district of Bathurst in 1840.

 

Thomas Kendall

Native of Cornwall -  Convicted of cattle stealing with Henry Symonds and Samuel Symonds. Thomas was a farm labourer aged 21 and was single. He was sentenced to transportation for life.

 

Edward Kershaw

Boot-maker convicted at the Middlesex Session of Peace of robbery of lodgings.  5' 8" with dark yellow complexion, dark brown hair mixed with grey and dark chestnut eyes. The top of his head was bald.

Issued with a Ticket of leave for district of Illawarra.

 

 

James King

Ladies shoemaker. Convicted of house breaking at the Central Criminal Court in April 1835 and sentenced to transportation for 7 years.

 

 

William King - 

Born in Warwickshire. Convicted of stealing poultry at Warwickshire Quarter Sessions and sentenced to 7 years transportation. Ticket of leave issued for the district of Bathurst.

 

Samuel Knight  

Died at sea July 1835. Aneurism

 

George Knight -  

Twenty two year old George Knight was convicted of embezzlement at the Old Bailey in September 1834. He had been employed as a sawyer, baker and labourer previously.

Description: Height 5’ 5 ½”Hair Brown Eyes, Chestnut, Particular marks: Cast inward right eye, small dimple in chin, scar left side of nose, scar back of right side of neck; SK on upper. GKJH lower left arm; 3 dots back of left hand

George Knight died at 20 mile hollow stockade, Pitnacree in 1840.

 

L

John Lake

John Lake, a 21 year old cowman from Chatham was indicted for stealing a cow valued at 9 shillings from John Salter.

John Salter was a respectable farmer from Notting Barns in Kensington who had placed his cow and its calf safely in one of his fields in the Harrow Road on 15 January 1835. This was the last he had seen of the cow. On the 19th January, John Lake and his accomplice, Francis Davis aged 15 took the animal to Mr. Barker, a salesman in Smithfield, saying that a Mr. Westbrook had requested Barker to dispose of the cow. They left the cow with Barker for the afternoon and in the evening returned to find that the cow had not yet been sold. They decided to take the cow and leave in at the green yard at Paddington. Here they claimed that it was a stray cow and therefore claimed a reward for taking care of it. The keeper of the yard refused to reward them however did give them 1 shilling. For this Lake abused the keeper and told him if they had taken it to Kensington they would have got 5 shillings for it. This led to the two thieves' undoing as it led to the discovery of the owner.  Lake and Davis were subsequently taken in to custody and on the 2nd February 1835 were placed before the bar at the Old Bailey. Francis Davis managed to produce several people who could give him a good character. This worked very much in his favour as he was acquitted of the charge, the jury believing him to have been in the dupe of the older Lake. 

John Lake was sentenced to transportation for life for his part in the theft.

 

 

James Lawson

Groom from Yorkshire. Certificate of Freedom issued in 1842

 

Richard Lee

Married horse-dealer from Northamptonshire. Assigned to John Brown, Bathurst

 

James Leverton

Fifteen year old farmer's boy. One of five convicts from the Royal Sovereign who was assigned to Thomas Icely at Bathurst.

 

John Ludlow was born in Compton Dando. In march 1835 he was sentenced to transportation for life for housebreaking. On arrival he was assigned W. Bayliss. In 1838 the following Notice appeared in the New South Wales Government Gazette:

Ludlow alias Ludwell, John per Royal Sovereign. aged 32. Somersetshire, marine, 5' 8 1/4 " sallow and pockpitted complexion, brown hair, brown eyes, raised mole right side of upper lip, mermaid inside lower right arm, blue ring middle finger of right hand, and scar back of hand mark of a wound on left knee. absconded from J.H. Boughton, Paterson since 26th November. He was on the run for five months before he was captured.

He was issued with a ticket of leave for the district of Paterson in 1844 and a conditional pardon in 1848.

 

M

Patrick Mangan 

Trade or calling Labourer and soldier.

Patrick Mangan was born in Tipperary, Ireland and was 27 years old when he was Court-martialled in Jamaica for falling asleep while on post . He was sentenced to 14 years transportation.

Patrick Mangan was issued with a Ticket of Leave for Bathurst district in 1842.

 

Edward Martin

Blackmsith's boy convicted of stealing a box in May 1835 at the Old Bailey

He was issued with a Ticket of Leave for Geelong in 1841

 

William Martin

Born in Sussex, William Martin was a 35 year old father of five when he was convicted of poaching. He had been transported before and was considered to be of bad character. He was assigned to Goat Island on arrival.

 

John Mason

John Mason was a shoemaker and groom. He was 22 when he was convicted of highway robbery and sentenced to 7 years transportation. He was assigned to Alexander Busby in Cassilis in 1837 and granted a ticket of leave for the district of Cassilis in 1841.

 

John Mayers

Farm servant aged 25 from Dorsetshire.

Convicted of stealing wool. When he left England on the Royal Sovereign he left behind a wife and daughter.

He was assigned to Michael Brennan in Appin in 1837 and received a ticket of leave on 24 March 1840 and Certificate of Freedom in 1842.

 

Robert Miller 

Father of 8 convicted for stealing a barrel of porter. Assigned to A. Campbell, Bathurst and received a ticket of leave in 1840

 

Patrick Millett

Fifty five year old father of 8 when he was convicted of stealing a saddle and bridle at the Surry Quarter Sessions. Patrick Millett was assigned to Thomas Arndell at Windsor.

 

 

Michael Mooney

Michael Mooney was convicted of assault at the Warwick Quarter Session in January 1835. He was 41 years old and could read and write. He suffered from Scurvy on the passage out.

His description included: Scar left cheek, breast and arms hairy, scar inside right wrist, scar knuckle of 4th finger of right hand, scar over left eyebrow, scar on top of chin. He was 5'6" with a dark sallow complexion and black hair.

He was issued with a Ticket of Leave Port Macquarie in 1841 and Applied to marry Mary Dankin in 1844

 

 

John Moss was convicted at the Norfolk assizes of housebreaking and sentenced to transportation for life. He was 21 and could read.

A Ticket of leave was issued in  1845 then cancelled as he had been punished in 1844. Re-issued in 1846.

 

 

David Murrells

David Murrells was 36 years old when he was convicted of stealing at the Essex Quarter Session in January 1835. He had no prior convictions and was sentenced to 14 years transportation. He was assigned to the Australian Agricultural Company and issued with a ticket of leave for the district of Port Stephens in 1841 and for Murrurundi in 1845.

In 1847 he was convicted of Cattle stealing. Following is an account of the trial:

David Mars (Murrells) was indicted for stealing a bullock, the property of Francis Little at Scone on the 8th September

Mr. Purefoy appeared on behalf of the prisoner.

It appeared that about two years back a man named Job Hatherall, a stockman in the employment of Captain Dumaresq, sold a bullock to Mr. Francis Little. It was a red bullock inclined to brindle, brand FS off rump JH with D under of off ribs and 68 on off shoulder and an indistinct brand on the off rump apparently DNI. It was a working bullock called Captain. In September last Hatherall met the prisoner on Doughboy Hill having the bullock in his team on the off side . He asked prisoner where he got the bullock and prisoner replied that it was his own. Hatherall then said that it was Mr. Francis Little's property, when prisoner said that he was only bouncing. Hatherall then went to look at the bullocks brand, when prisoner told him that he was only a poor man, and begged him to say nothing about it; that one of his team had died and he was obliged to get another to carry him on the road. Hatherall told him that the bullock was the property of Mr. Francis little of Invermein and unless it was given up there and then other steps would assuredly be taken. Prisoner said he could not get on without the bullock and would not give it up.

Mr. Purefoy urged for the defence that there was no felonious taking in as much as there was no intention on prisoners part to make away with the bullock, but merely to use it to take him on the road for a time, when he afterwards intended to return him. He also questioned the identity of the bullock not being fully proved by the witnesses.

The Chairman, in summing up said that if the jury were convinced that the prisoner had taken the beast off the road merely to have a turn out of him they certainly could not find him guilty of stealing, but the evidence went to rebut such a presumption inasmuch as he had claimed the bullock as his own, when first taxed with stealing it

The jury after a short deliberation, returned a verdict of guilt and the prisoner was sentenced to be worked in irons for three years.

 

 

N

 

John Neal was employed as a farm servant in Wiltshire. He was sentenced to transportation for life for highway robbery. He could read and write and was assigned to the Cassilis district

 

George Newman

Twenty year old stable boy who was convicted of housebreaking in April 1835. George Newman was assigned to  John Bingle at Invermein on arrival in Australia.

 

O

John Overall

Assigned to Hamilton Hume at Appin.  He was granted a Ticket of Leave for district of Yass in 1843 and a Conditional pardon in 1849.

John Overall died 1854 Yass.

 

P

William Palmer

Description -

Height 4’ 81/2”

Complexion: sallow and pockpitted

Hair: Brown

Eyes: Hazel

'Stout made' with carrotty whiskers.

William Palmer was convicted of stealing a stove at the Surry Quarter Sessions in May 1835. He was assigned to Grayson Hartley at Dungog, and granted a Certificate of Freedom in 1850

 

 

John Parker

Thirty-six year old single drover sentenced to 7 years for embezzlement. Assigned to J. Grant in Bathurst.

 

James Pedder

Description:

Height: 5’2 ¾”

Complexion: Brown

Hair; Dark brown

Eyes: hazel grey

Particular marks: JPGPESTBRP, back of lower right arm, JPAPMCACHSJP back of lower left arm; scar back left leg.

James Pedder was born in Middlesex. He was employed as a racing groom when he was convicted of highway robbery at the Wiltshire Assizes in March 1835

He was assigned to J.H. Boughton at Paterson on arrival and died at Paterson in 1843

 

 

 

William Pluck

46 year old father of seven convicted of stealing flour. Suffered from vertigo and scorbutus on ship. The following lists the treatment he received from Francis Logan

CASE 4

William Pluck aged 42. Prisoner.

26th September 1835

Lat 18,12.S

Lon19.16’W

Complains of want of appetite and says he feels very week and that he has been troubled with headache for several days past. His gums are tender and shrunk very much away from the teeth. He has no discolouration of the skin. Gave him Nitre in solution to the amount of two drams to day with his usual supply of lime juice.

28th September

His appetite is returning and he feels better. The nitre to be continued.

29th September.

Cured. Discharged. The gums still seem a little tender.

3rd October

Returned today with the same symptoms as last but with aggravated  - put him again on a course of nitre.

4th October

Much the same as yesterday. To continue nitre

5th October

His appetite is returning and he feels better. To continue medicine.

10th October

Cured . Discharged

17th October

Returned today to the same symptoms – want of appetite and debility – no headache but has a little discoloration of the skin on the right knee.

18th October

Nearly the same as yesterday . To continue nitre

19th October

Feels a little better. Appetite returning. To continue nitre and lime juice.

23rd October

Continue to improve

25th October

Still improving

29th October

Discharged. Cured

30th November

Returned again with former symptoms with many large livid blotches on different parts of the body. Nitre to be given and tinc. Gentium with nitre.

1st December

Seems a good deal worse today having had no sleep from the rolling of the ship. Gave him with the Tint. Gentian and Nitre, Tinc. Cinum and one wine and cupful of rum

2nd December

Not better. The weather very wet, cold and stormy. Had the same remedies as yesterday

3rd December

Feels better. All the remedies to be continued except the rum

6th December

had improved a little for 2 days but now seems stationary since last report with all the remedies continued. Nitre to the amount of 4 drams. Gentium 3 Cinnum

Having landed at Sydney and fresh provisions will be served tomorrow. No further treatment will be necessary.

13th December

Cured.

Receives 27.6.1835.

Frigate

Journal of His Majesty's Convict Ship

Royal Sovereign

Fr. Logan, Surgeon and Superintendent

Between 4.7.1835 and 30.12.1835

 He was issued with a Ticket of leave for the district of Port Macquarie. Possibly sent to Norfolk Island.

 

Peter Plummer Farm servant convicted of highway robbery. Stealing from John Eaton at Wargrave, 3s and two knives. Sentence of Death Recorded at Oxfordshire Lent Assizes. (Jackson's Oxford Journal 7 March 1835).

Peter Plummer was assigned to J & F Cooper, Maneroo. A Ticket of leave was issued in 1844

 

 

John Pople was 21 when he was convicted of stealing a waistcoat in London. He had a prior conviction and was sentenced to transportation for 7 years.

He was Assigned to Aspinall Brown & Co, Bathurst. His description included: scar right cheek bone, scar over left eyebrow; man, woman, Harriet, anchor, inside lower arm; crucifix, EB, Abraham Morgan, Bird lower left arm; six dots back of forefinger and thumb of left hand

 

 

William Powell.. Combmaker from Yorkshire convicted of bigamy. Allowed to proceed to Hobart town in company with Rev. Orton.

 

 

R

John Rawlins

Bricklayer from Hampshire convicted of stealing brass taps. Tried at Wiltshire Quarter Sessions and sentenced to transportation for 7 years.  Obtained ticket of leave in 1842.

 

 

Richard Rawson

24 year old father of two from Yorkshire who was convicted of stealing poultry.

In August 1839 the Government Gazette recorded that Rawson had been apprehended after absconding from the bridge party at Anvil Creek near Maitland. His description was posted - Wheelwright and house carpenter and sawyer aged 30 from Yorkshire. 5' 6 1/4"; ruddy complexion; brown hair, hazel eyes, mole on right breast bone, tattoos.

 

James Thomas Richards

Twenty one year old waterman convicted of robbing a till. Assigned to Richard Sharpe at Windsor. He also served a colonial sentence at Norfolk Island.

Granted a Ticket of Leave for the Goulburn district in 1847.

 

 

John Richards

Married copper miner from Cornwall convicted of stealing a letter seal in March 1835.

His description from the indent -

Height: 5’4”

Complexion: Dark sallow

Hair: Brown

Eyes: Hazel grey

Particular marks

Scar upper part of nose, another inner corner of right eyebrow, ship right breast, sun, half moon, stars, INRA inside lower right arm; man woman MDIR inside lower left arm; large scar outside left leg.

 John Richards was assigned to the Australian Agricultural Company at Newcastle on arrival. The work was arduous and over the next few years he was punished many times for absconding and failing to do his allotted tasks. Select here to read some of the punishments recorded in the Newcastle Bench Books

 

 

Henry Robinson

Twenty Five year old peddler from Middlesex. Convicted of stealing a watch at Surry Quarter Sessions 8th September 1834

His description in the ship indent included: Nose short, eyebrows partially meeting, 11 dots and + back of left hand, blue spot back of middle finger of same. 2 round scars outside small left leg.

He was assigned to Crawford Logan Brown at Dungog in 1837

 

 

David Rose

Sixty year old bargeman from Somersetshire. Convicted in March 1835 and sentenced to transportation for life. Ticket of leave issued for Scone in January 1844.

 

 

S

Dominick Sampson

House painter born in Dublin. Sentenced to death for robbery. Commuted to transportation for life.

A notice was posted in the Government gazette of 15 November 1837. - Robert Sowerby, Frederick Hulme and Dominick Sampson had  all absconded from C.H. Ebden at Port Phillip in September 1837.

 

 

Michael Shaw Chimney sweep born in Ireland. Assigned to George Cox, Penrith

Height: 5’ 1”

Complexion: Dark

Hair: Dark Brown

Eyes: Hazel

Particular marks: MS, anchor inside lower right arm, scar left eyebrow, scar back of middle finger right hand ,scar outside left leg.

Ticket of Leave issued for the District of Mudgee in 1844. 44/203

 

Thomas Shearman

Carpenter and pumpmaker aged 27 convicted of poaching and sentenced to 7 years transportation. Assigned to William Wallace, St. Vincent. Ticket of Leave issued for district of Braidwood. He  married Martha Ibberson in  Sydney in  1844.

The Maitland Mercury reported the following incident when Martha Shearman was robbed by bushrangers at Miller's Forest. Two of the men, Richard Hicks and Charles Wood also arrived on the Royal Sovereign in 1835

Martha Shearman of Millers Forest, deposed that one night in the beginning of July her house was entered by three men, one of whom held her by the throat for upwards of two hours, while the others were rummaging her house: she bore the marks of the ruffians grasp for many days afterwards. She could not positively identify the men as it was too dark at the time to distinguish their features, but several of the articles found in Hick’s bundle she positively identified; and her evidence in this respect was corroborated by William Holder, her brother in law, who identified some combs as part of a dozen he had brought from Braidwood and given to Mrs. Shearman.

Maitland Mercury 30 August 1845 

 

John Smith was born in Cambridge where he was employed as a brick maker's labourer. He was convicted of stealing bottles at Cambridge Assizes. Had been flogged previously. He was assigned to Alexander Berry at, Illawarra on arrival in Australia

John Smith was born in  London. He was a Jeweller and was convicted of picking pockets for which he was sentenced to 7 years transportation.

He Received a Ticket of Leave for the district of Windsor in 1844 and a Certificate of Freedom in 1842

 

 

John Smith was born in Sussex. He was employed as a pedlar's boy.

Height: 5’2 ½”

Complexion: Ruddy

Hair: Light

Eyes: Eyes

Particular marks: small scar over left eyebrow, 3 small dark moles, back of right cheek, finger nails short, scar back of foreginger ofleft hand

He was convicted of stealing coals and sentenced to transportation for life.

 

 

Norman Smith  - Sixteen year old old farm boy convicted of stealing beer.

A Ticket of Leave was issued for Maitland district in 1842. Ticket cancelled 1844 for robbery and being absent from his district.

 

Thomas Smith  - Clerk in a medicine warehouse. Convicted of stealing a miniature portrait. Absconded from N. Powell at Queenbeyan in 1838

 

 William Smith

Twenty year old pedlar from County Longford. Convicted of highway robbery and sentenced to transportation for life.

He was assigned to Lawrence Myles at Brisbane Waters.

 

 

Robert Sowerby 35 year old widower. Vetinary surgeon and seaman convicted of forgery

Height: 5’ 3 ½

Complexion: sallow

Hair: Brown mixed with grey

Eyes: Grey and full

Particular marks: Nose long and thin, mark of an anchor inside lower right arm. Burn mark right wrist, cross scar knuckle of middle finger of right hand, scar back of little finger of left hand, scar right shin

A notice was posted in the Government gazette of 15 November 1837. - Robert Sowerby, Frederick Hulme and Dominick Sampson had all absconded from C.H. Ebden at Port Phillip in September 1837

 

Peter Spencely Born in Cambridge.  Thirty nine year old carpenter and joiner convicted of housebreaking. Assigned to W. Lucas, Illawarra.

 

John Strickland
Farm servant from Dorsetshire convicted of stealing wool.

Absconded from Thomas Collins at Bankstown and apprehended in December 1836. Assigned to the Gaol in Sydney in 1837. In August 1839 absconded from Collins again. His description was posted in the Government Gazette - 5'6" ruddy complexion, light brown hair, grey eyes, chin declining, slight scar ball of right thumb, large round scar back of outer angle of right leg.

 

John Sullivan

Weaver aged 25. Assigned to Richard Jones, Patrick Plains

 

Edward Symonds. Linen draper. Sentenced to 14 years for street robbery. Spent 6 1/2 years in Bermuda. Ticket of leave issued for the district Port Macquarie in 1842.

 

William Stainer - born in Evercreech, Somerset. He was assigned to Mineral Surveyors Dept. Sydney.

 

Thomas Skuce

Once the silk weavers of Spitalfields, London led a gentle life. They were sought after artisans with a comfortable living as employment rates were high. They had leisure hours on Sundays and garden beds with flowers to attend to. Many were descended from the French weavers who emigrated in the 17C.

As more factories opened up in London, competition became greater. Factory owners undersold each other. They paid fewer wages and workers’ hours went up. The workers were obliged to take whatever price they could get. They realized that if they did not take the work offered there would be someone else who did. There was also increased competition from foreign markets. By the 1830’s the value of silk manufacture in Great Britain was £10,480,000. Approximately 9,300 looms were at work with five people working every two looms. Workers were at labour for up to 14 hours per day. Many could not find work at all. They lived little better than paupers often living eight people to a house. They were lucky to eat meat once a week. The children were too valuable as weavers to be sent to school so many, like Thomas Skuce, remained illiterate.

Weavers' houses often consisted of two rooms on the ground floor and a workroom above. The workroom always had a large window so that light could be maximized. Entire streets in Bethnal Green consisted of these houses constructed especially for weaving purposes. Many weavers lived only in one room. Up to seven or eight people may have worked and lived in one room. They would be without a wardrobe, cupboard, sink or sanitary arrangements. The looms, their only source of income took up most of their valuable space. Beyond the tiny income from the looms lay destitution and crime.

This was the life that Thomas Skuse lived in Bethnal Green with his sister Elizabeth, brothers Richard and Samuel, and niece, all silk weavers. They lived at No. 8 Half Nicholl Street – William Goode was their landlord. In December 1834, Thomas had been out of work for some time, however his sister Elizabeth and brother Samuel were weaving a piece of silk for Mr. Thomas Field Gibson. When they completed and returned the piece he would pay them their wages, although their wages would be not be anything like what the silk was worth. Arthur Dear, also employed by Mr. Thomas Field Gibson estimated Elizabeth’s silk to be worth about 21 pounds. Elizabeth did not go to sleep on the 2nd of December until 11pm. Like many of the silk weavers she had to work long arduous hours just to make ends meet. She left her silk ‘perfectly safe in the loom, bolted the street door and tied her bedroom door with a string’. When she awakened at seven o’clock the next morning the work was gone as well as three rollers that the silk was rolled on. Thomas also was nowhere to be found.

Thomas had taken the silks to William Millwood who lived in Rose lane late that night. William Millwood was suspicious and asked Thomas if he had stolen the silk to which Thomas replied ‘No I have not; I am going to take them to the warehouse in the morning’. Present at Millwoods that night was Frederick Starbrook who was later to be accused with George Taylor (both found not guilty) of receiving the stolen silks. Thomas took the silks away the next morning leaving the rollers with Millwood and Starbrook who when they heard that a policeman was coming down the street threw the rollers in the privy. Starbrook later met Thomas’ brother Nathaniel in the street who asked Starbrook if he knew of the robbery and Thomas’ whereabouts. Starbrook replied that Thomas had gone into the country to make a few pounds after staying at the Black Bull at Highgate.

When Thomas’ sister Sarah Plummer asked Thomas of the robbery saying it would clear their sisters reputation if he confessed to the robbery, Thomas admitted that he had taken his sister's silk and that George Taylor had taken Samuel’s silk cutting them away from the loom late on the night of the 2nd of December.

In his defence Thomas stated that the next day after the robbery he had been out of work for some time and had gone into the country to make a few pounds with his songs. He stated that he had almost a hundred songs. George Taylor went with him to sell the songs. When Thomas returned he found his mother’s shop empty. He did not, he says, trouble his head about his sister. Certainly he did not go back to live with his sister Elizabeth and their brothers. He was arrested by policeman Joseph Cricks at the Fryingpan public house in Brick lane in the middle of December. It seems that Thomas was discharged after being arrested because in the following April, on the 15th he again stole some silk. This time it was 83 yards and 1 roller valued at 12 pounds from the house of his sister Sarah and her husband Robert. The silk belonged to Robert. Perhaps Sarah and Robert had taken Thomas into their home when he returned from selling his songs.

This time Thomas pleaded guilty and was sentenced to be transported for Life on the 11 May 1835 at the Central Criminal Court. He was never to see his brothers and sisters again. Aged 18, he was transported to Australia on the Royal Sovereign arriving on 12 December 1835.

At age 22 he was assigned to J.R. Hume in Yass and received a Ticket of Leave for this district in 1844. The Ticket of Leave was cancelled in 1857 for being absent from his district.

Thomas may have died in Inverell in 1879 aged 64.

While the appalling conditions of the silk weavers led many like Thomas to a life of crime, many others resisted. They continued to eke out their existence day-by-day, piece-by-piece with destitution always close by. Nathaniel, Thomas’ brother who searched for Thomas after he robbed their sister Elizabeth, remained in London all his life. Born in Kidderminster Worcestershire in 1814, he was taken into the Whitechapel Union Workhouse, South Grove, Mile End Rd, Mile End Old Town, London,  in 1881 and still gave his occupation as weaver.  The decision for him to enter the workhouse was probably not easy. He may have been too ill to support himself, weighed down by the years of hard toil and inadequate food. Perhaps he had no family who could care for him in his old age.  His life span outlasted that of Thomas although probably not by very many years.

 

 

 

T

 

William Taylor 

Assigned to Gilbert Cory, Paterson. See George Fitness for an account of Taylor's trial

 

 

James Thompson

Silk weaver from London convicted of stealing sashes and sentenced to 7 years transportation.. Ticket of leave issued for Bathurst district in 1840 and Certificate of Freedom in 1842.

 

 

Joseph Thompson

Farm labourer aged 21 from Warwickshire. Convicted of stealing copper in January 1835. Previous sentence of death recorded. Assigned to N. Lawson, Bathurst.

 

 

Henry Tudor - Type founders boy.  5'3 with dark ruddy complexion and dark brown hair. His tattoos included :EP, heart, 2 darts. H7WTPG lower right arm; child, HTJTRTJTEP, lower left arm He had a scar on the bridge of the nose

Following is an account of his trial:

'Henry Tudor was indicted for stealing, on the 1st of April 1 handkerchief, value 5s.; the goods of Robert Gibson.

Robert Gibson. I live in the Old Bailey. On the 1st of April, I was walking up Fleet street - I felt something at my pocket - i put my hand into my pocket, and my handkerchief was gone - I turned and saw the prisoner - I said he had taken my handkerchief - he said he had not - he was close behind me.

Robert Mason ( City Police constable No. 91). I know the prisoner by sight - I saw him on the 1st of April. about twenty minutes after four o'clock, walking behind this gentleman - I watched him, and saw him draw a red coloured silk handkerchief from the gentleman's pocket. and he gave it to another person - I could not get across in time enough to take them both, but I took the prisoner, as the prosecutor was talking to him.

Prisoner. When you came up, you asked the prosecutor what he had lost?

Witness; No, I said directly, that I saw you draw the handkerchief

The prisoner put in a written defence, declaring his innocence

Guilty.  Aged 17 - Transported for seven years.'

He was issued with a Ticket of leave for Patrick Plains in 1840 and died at Jerry's Plains.

 

 

Samuel Tunstall

Ironmonger convicted of stealing irons at Lancashire and sentenced to 14 years transportation. Ticket of Leave issued for Maitland district 10 January 1842.

 

 

W

 

Mathew Walker Convicted of stealing money in Yorkshire in January 1835 and sentenced to transportation for 7 years. Assigned to Aspinall Brown & Co. Bathurst.

 

George Wall Convicted of stealing cidar in Bridgwater, Somerset. Considered a bad character as had been transported before. Assigned to Goat Island.

Ticket of Leave issued for Invermein 1840

 

Charles Wallace

Publican convicted of stealing an umbrella. Assigned House of Correction, Sydney. Married Jane Christy 1842.

 

William Wallis

Born  in London. Gardener's labourer convicted of stealing mutton. Certificate of Freedom issued in 1842.

 

Lazarus Wells Convicted of horse stealing. Assigned to Hamilton Hume, Yass. Ticket of leave issued for the district of Yass in 1848 and cancelled in 1857 for being absent from his district. Ticket later restored.

 

Mathew Westlake 

25 year old draper convicted of stealing money.

 

George Wharton

Shoemaker convicted of stealing shoes. Transported before. Served six years in Bermuda. To be kept at labour on public roads. Possibly died 1839

 

William Whittle

Seaman convicted of smuggling. Ticket of Leave for district of Wellington 1841. Applied to marry Elizabeth Hunt 1844.

 

John Wicks

Farm servant aged 30 convicted of sheep stealing at the Surry Quarter Sessions in February 1835. Assigned to Thomas T. Bloomfield, Liverpool.

 

John Wilby

Farm servant and butcher from Norfolk convicted of stealing poultry. He had sandy whiskers,  and was bald. A Ticket of Leave was issued for the district of Port Phillip

 

Isaac Wilcox

42 year old father of five from Whatley, Frome convicted of receiving one hundred weight and half of hay belonging to William Sheppart knowing it to be stolen. The hay had been stolen by John Wilcox and Job Humphries.

Isaac Wilcox suffered from scurvy on the passage out. He was assigned to J. McDonald, Windsor on arrival. He was issued with a ticket of leave in 1841 and applied to marry Margaret Painter in 1843.

 

Henry Wilkinson

Fifteen year old carpenter's boy from Plymouth convicted of stealing a watch and chain. No previous convictions. Assigned to Thomas Icely, Bathurst.

 

Frederick Williams - Sentence of death recorded for robbing Rev. Hawkins at Kington St. Michael, Wiltshire. Find out more about Frederick Williams at Bitton Families

 

Henry Williams

Bricklayer's labourer from Buckinghamshire convicted of stealing bacon. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Ticket of Leave issued for Windsor altered to Bathurst

 

 

James Robert Williams

Carvers composition maker from London Convicted of robbing his master and sentenced to 14 years transportation. Application to marry Margaret Hunter in 1842 in Campbelltown.

.

Peter Williams

Carvers composition maker born Gloucestershire. Assigned C.T. Smith, Illawarra.

Particular marks: dark carroty whiskers, small raised mole back left side of neck , scar back of left thumb, blue ring middle finger left hand

 

Joseph Wilmott

Joseph Wilmott was born in Hanham, Gloucestershire, England. One of eight children born to Sylvia Brown and Samuel Wilmott, he was christened on 24th February, 1811 in Hanham. His brothers and sisters were William, Ann, Sarah, Hannah and Robert.

In 1835 Joseph was found guilty of stealing one hundred pounds weight of bacon valued at forty shillings, one hundred pounds weight of pork valued at forty shillings and ten  pounds weight of mutton valued at four shillings from the house of the Rev. Thomas Hawkins in the Parish of Kington Saint Michael in the County of Wiltshire. He was also indicted for unlawfully and maliciously stabbing, cutting, and wounding William Hatherill, to prevent his lawful apprehension. Joseph was found guilty and sentence of death was passed upon him by Mr. Justice Patteson. Frederick Williams his accomplice had a sentence of death recorded against him for aiding and abetting Joseph. Their trial took place at the Wiltshire Assizes on 7th March, 1835. Joseph's sentence was commuted to transportation for life.

(Rev. Hawkins died in March 1836) -

 

Joseph was assigned to work for the Australian Agricultural company in their coal mines at Newcastle.

He obtained his Ticket of Leave and Certificate of Freedom and in 1839 or 1840 started a relationship with widow Mary Rice (nee Murphy) who had arrived on the Caroline' in 1833.

Mary was 26 years old and had a daughter Catherine born to her first husband, convict Patrick Rice.  When Patrick died in Newcastle Hospital in 1839 Mary was left in Newcastle with an infant daughter to raise.

By 1845 when he married Mary Rice Joseph was no longer working in the coal mines but had turned to timber getting. Sawyers and timber cutters at this time often travelled up the Hunter and Paterson Rivers to fell the valuable cedar trees. 

On the 9th June, 1856, Joseph made his Will leaving his property including horses, cattle, land and house at Shepherd's Hill, Newcastle to his wife and four sons.  His four daughters were to inherit only if their mother and all four brothers pre-deceased them.

Joseph died aged 42 years, in Newcastle N.S.W. on 7th July 1856 due to heart disease. He was buried in the Church of England burial ground on 10th July, 1856.

 

Thomas Wilson

Cheesmonger aged 24.

Crime; Stealing hats

Trial: Middlesex session of Peace 18.5.1835

Sentence 7 years

Previous convictions: none

Height: 5’5 ½”

Complexion: Brown

Hair: light brown

Eyes: Chestnut

Particular marks: Front teeth irregular , scar inside left eye, scar left side of upper lip.

Assigned to Australian Agricultural company in Newcastle.

 

James Wyse

62 years old. Convicted of horse stealing and sentenced to transportation for life. Assigned to J.M. Grey, Illawarra

 

Charles Wood - Bushranger

Native place: Norfolk

Trade or calling: Brickmakers labourer

Crime: Housebreaking

Tried: Norfolk assizes 28.3.1835

Sentence: 7 years

Previous convictions: none

Height: 5/ 6”

Complexion: dark sallow

Hair; Brown

Eyes: Grey

Particular marks: Eyebrows meeting, mole right side of neck, small mole right cheek, 3 warts back of forefinger right hand

 

 

Richard Woolford

21 year old farm servant convicted of poaching.

Ticket of leave issued in 1840 and cancelled in 1841 for stealing lead.

 

George Woollard

Twenty years old. Convicted of stealing harness in June 1835. No prior convictions. Assigned to Thomas Moore at Liverpool in 1837

 

 

Y

William Youngman

Farm servant and shepherd from Suffolk sentenced to 14 years for housebreaking. Ticket of leave issued for district of Bathurst.

 

 

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