Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

James McGillivray and Emanuel Hungerford

Map 2

James McGillivray arrived in Hobart as a cabin passenger on the Deveron in June 1822. He brought with him recommendations and was granted land in Van Diemen's Land however applied to have his grant transferred to New South Wales.

He took his passage to Sydney with Alexander Shand in February 1823 and after seeking permission to proceed to Newcastle sailed up the coast on the Mariner to view land. Other settlers travelling to Newcastle on this day included John Cheers, John Hickey, George Brown and Alexander Dickson. He sailed to Newcastle twice more in 1823.

Land Grant

James McGillivray received a grant of 900 acres in November 1823 in the Parish of Gosforth and 1100 acres in June 1825 in the Parish of Heddon. His name is also included on a list of individuals who received an Allotment of Land in Newcastle in 1824.

Map of the River Hunter, and its branches.Joseph Cross 1828. Showing location of James McGillivrey's LochdonMap of the River Hunter, and its branches : shewing the Lands reserved thereon for Church purposes, the Locations made to Settlers. Location of James McGillivray's grant on the right in blue. Click to enlarge

Convict Servants

Assigned convict servants included William Edmonds, Robert Newnham and James Lane. By 1825 he was producing enough maize to sell and was awarded a government contract.

Government Employment

In 1828 he was employed as a clerk at the Office of the Superintendent of Convicts.

He married Jane Bradley in Sydney in July 1830 and acquired some land in Cumberland county in the 1830's. In 1833 he was appointed clerk at the Female Factory at Parramatta.

James McGillivray ran a store at Bungonia in 1835. (see R v. Smith. Decisions of the Superior Court of NSW). He was residing in Raymond Terrace when his daughter Arminella died in 1858.


James McGillivray died suddenly at his residence Springdale, Lane Cove on 17 May 1863 aged 66.

Emanuel Hungerford

McGillivray's land grant was acquired by Emanuel Hungerford.

Captain Emanuel Hungerford was born in 1785 in Cork Ireland. He was Captain of 32nd regt., Cork Militia before immigrating to Australia aged about 43. He arrived in Australia from Ireland on 16 May 1828 on the Alexander Henry with his wife Catherine nee Loane, seven sons, and an infant daughter; relatives Jonas Morris Townsend and Morris Townsend Somerville; a schoolmaster, Richard Boyle, and employed servants. He was promised a land grant and applied for land on the Hunter, however failing to gain the land of his choice, he purchased the already established Lochdon Estate from James McGilivray.

Children of Emanuel and Catherine Hungerford:

John Becher Hungerford - b. 1814. Married Anne Winder
Robert Richard Hungerford, b. 1816. Married Ellen Winder
Emanuel Becher Hungerford, b. 1818. Married (1) Jane Boston; (2) Elizabeth Boston
William Moore Hungerford, b. 1820. Married Agnes Winder
Henry Hungerford, b. 1822. Unmarried
Thomas Hungerford b. 1823. Married (1) Emma Hollingsworth Wood (2) Catherine Mallon
Septimus Hungerford b. 1825. Married Eliza Sophia Pilcher
Anne Loane Hungerford b. 1827. Married Rev. Robert Chapman
Percy Hungerford b. 1830. Married Emily Angelina Smith
Catherine Hungerford b. 1834. Married Edward Swire

Many years later Anne, Ellen and Agnes Winder who married three of the Hungerford brothers, were referred to as 'The Roses of the Hunter'...."Winder bequeathed to the colony the 'Roses of the Hunter,' the handsomest, the truest girls. All are married and their children and their children's children bear the type in character and countenance of the old English gentleman, their noble progenitor" - Maitland Mercury 26 April 1881

Emanuel Hungerford became involved in public life and was held in high esteem as he was appointed Magistrate in about 1830. Most of the ground was a ti-tree swamp, however large tracts of land were cleared and planted, probably using convict labour. In those days the ground was turned by wooden ploughs drawn by bullock teams. Wheat was planted by Captain Hungerford and for some years the crops flourished until rust wiped them out.

Farley House

In 1828 Captain Hungerford constructed a residence of sandstone, procured from Stoney Creek, near the railway station of Farley. The work was done by convict labour. Hungerford called his residence Farley House and was known to have been living there in 1845 when his son William married Agnes Winder

The Inverell Times in 1941 included a description of Farley House and Font Hill Homestead

"This residence called Farley Homesead, was one of the earliest homesteads built in the district. It was an imposing English mansion of two storeys, securely placed above the swamps and out of flood reach. In 1870 the old place had to be pulled down as wood of insufficient seasoning had been used for the window supports, and other portions. This timber warped, causing cracks in the walls, notwithstanding their thickness and apparent strength.

From its masonry a new building of one storey was erected alongside the original site."

Font Hill Homestead

"Font Hill homestead, built in 1838 for John, one of the seven sons of Captain Hungerford, stands solid and solitary like a sentinel overlooking the valley farms and the swamps. Its stone walls are 18 inches to two feet in thickness, and the rooms are very lofty. Cedar doors are two inches thick, and still fit as snugly as ever. Wood work throughout is practically all still the original cedar. In the flooring of the house the nails are square-headed, such as were made by hand in the convict days. Fireplaces are all cut into the solid masonry for a depth of about two feet where the chimneys are built forward into the rooms. Fair-sized logs can be burned in these recesses, and the warmth is well distributed. Down some deep stone steps at the rear of the residence, and under an arch almost flat, one passes to some cell-like quarters, where the convict labourers are supposed to have been housed. Under the house, following the same plan of construction throughout are six rooms or cells with a sentry-march seventy feet in length by twelve feet wide and eight feet high, around it, and a passageway beneath the hall all equal in dimensions with the upper rooms. A trap-door connecting the upper and lower halls is supposed to have been used for passing food below to the convicts. Each of the cells has but one window, small, and with bars instead of glass. Corresponding with each of these inner windows is a further window in the outer wall that encloses the sentry-walk. Fireplaces are set in these cells in the same positions as in the living- rooms above, prob ably for support. A couple of irons affixed to one of the ceilings suggests the confinement cell where refractory workers were chained "

Owlpen House

Another son, Robert had also married into the Winder family in 1839, when he married Ellen Winder. Emanuel had built Owlpen House in 1837 for Robert, and he and Ellen lived there for many years. After a life of varied fortunes, including bankruptcy in 1850 and some time living in New Zealand, Robert and Ellen returned to the area later in life. Ellen reportedly died at Brush Villa in 1892. Robert survived his wife by five years and died in 1897.

Some of the employed workers and assigned convict servants at the Lochdon / Farley estate as follows:

Morris Somerville, a relative of the Hungerfords who arrived on the Alexander Henry with them, was employed as an overseer
Richard Boyle - came free per Alexander Henry - employed as schoolmaster
John O'Brien and family - came free on the Alexander Henry
Ellen Bryon per Alexander Henry - employed as a servant
John Calahan per Henry, employed as a labourer
James Carr per ship Mangles, assigned convict servant
William Edmonds per ship Guildford 1824 - had originally been assigned to James McGillivray
Garrett Fitzgerald per ship Mangles,assigned convict servant
Morris Joy per ship Mangles, assigned convict servant
Robert Ramsey per Ocean assigned convict servant

John Thompson per ship America in 1829 assigned on arrival
Henry Wise per ship Amercia in 1829, assigned on arrival
Thomas Daniells per ship Royal Admiral assigned convict servant in 1830
William Neale per Royal Admiral assigned convict servant in 1830
Thomas Rudge, convict by the Adrian assigned on arrival in 1830
Joel Sands, convict by the Adrian assigned on arrival in 1830
Letitia Sullivan per ship Mariner assigned convict servant in 1831
Mary Campbell per ship Brothers assigned convict servant in 1831
Thomas Green per James Pattison, assigned convict servant in 1831
Caroline McCarty assigned convict servant in 1831
Timothy Keane per ship Mangles assigned convict servant in 1832

John McDonald, emigrant per the Boyne in 1839 employed on arrival


Wood, W. Allan, Dawn in the valley : the story of settlement in the Hunter River Valley to 1833

Map of the River Hunter, and its branches

Maitland Daily Mercury 11 May 1938

Singleton, Sue, Historical Heritage Study 2010

Inverell Times 14 July 1941