Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

Convict Ship Lady Penrhyn - 1788

Embarked 104 females
Surgeon's Journal - Yes
Captain William Compton Sever
Surgeons John Turnpenny Altree and Arthur Bowes Smyth
Follow the Female Convict Ship Trail

The Lady Penrhyn was one of eleven vessels of the historic First Fleet to Australia. Only female prisoners were embarked on the Lady Penrhyn. The National Archives A2A has the following information.... The Lady Penrhyn was built by Greaves and launched in 1786. She had 2 decks, 3in bottom, length 103ft 5in, keel 82ft 3 1/2in, breadth 27ft 6 1/2in, hold 12ft, wing transom 18ft 5 1/2in, port cell 22ft 11in, waist 1ft 8in, roundhouse 6ft 5 3/4in, 332 tons.

The Fleet

The Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy escort ships, HMS Sirius and HMAT Supply accompanied by six convict transports -
Lady Penrhyn
Prince of Wales
and three store ships, the Borrowdale, Fishburn and Golden Grove.

The Convicts

In the months before the Fleet set sail, Governor Philip noted his thoughts on the treatment of the female convicts {Extract}...

The women in general I should suppose possess neither virtue nor honesty. But there may be some for thefts who still retain some degree of virtue, and these should be permitted to keep together, and strict orders to the master of the transport should be given that they are not abused and insulted by the ship's company, which is said to have been the case too often when they were sent to America.[5]

Newgate prison was visited by prison reformer John Howard in 1787....... In three or four rooms there were near one hundred and fifty women crowded together, many young creatures with the old and hardened, some of whom had been confined upwards two years; on the men's side likewise there were many boys of twelve or fourteen years of age; some almost naked. In the men's infirmary, there were only seven iron bedsteads, and at my last visit there being twenty sick, some of them naked and with sores, in a miserable condition, lay on the floor with only a rug. There were four sick in the infirmary for women, which is only fifteen feet and a half by twelve, has but one window, and no bedsteads; the sewers were offensive and prison not whitewashed. [8]

There was a young girl growing up in Norfolk at this time known as Betsy Gurney. In years to come she would be feted for her courage and determination in assisting the poor women of Newgate but that was far in the future. In 1787 there was no one to ameliorate their situation and their lives were full of deprivation and misery. Young girls or callous criminals, if they were sent to Newgate, they were all incarcerated together. Little wonder they were glad to escape this misery.

Watkins Tench many years later described the behaviour of the First Fleet women as heroic in that they were much less depressed of mind at the thought of leaving Old England than the men (see the Charlotte). He could in no way account for this difference between the men and women.......... I strolled down among the convicts (on the Charlotte), to observe their sentiments at this juncture. A very few excepted, their countenances indicated a high degree of satisfaction, though in some, the pang of being severed, perhaps for ever, from their native land, could not be wholly suppressed; in general, marks of distress were more perceptible among the men than the women; for I recollect to have seen but one of those affected on the occasion, 'Some natural tears she dropp'd, but wip'd them soon.' After this the accent of sorrow was no longer heard; more genial skies and change of scene banished repining and discontent, and introduced in their stead cheerfulness and acquiescence in a lot, now not to be altered.[10]


An order for the female convicts to be embarked on the Lady Penrhyn came in January 1787

{Extract}...... Under Secretary Nepean to Mr. Shelton, Whitehall, 1st January 1787... Sir, The Lady Penrhyn, now in the river, will receive all the female convicts now in Newgate under sentence of transportation, and her commander, with Mr. Richardson, will enter into the bonds the latter will contract. [6]

The Freeman's Journal gave a slightly less formal description - An order has been sent to Mr. Akerman, the keeper of the gaol of Newgate, for the removal of the female convicts under sentence of transportation; and this morning seventy of them were removed for the purpose of being conveyed to Botany Bay, to assist in populating that intended settlement.[11]

Under-Secretary Evan Nepean thought that all 150 of the female convicts should be embarked on the same vessel, the Lady Penrhyn, or, if that could not be achieved to put on board 124 women and let the remaining twenty-six on board the Dunkirk hulk at Plymouth go in one of the two ships intended to take the male convicts from there. He was dismayed that the women were to be sent on three different ships and thought for safety they should not if possible be divided. In correspondence to Sir Charles Middleton, Comptroller of the Navy, he outlined his thoughts on the matter, however two days later received a terse reply.....

It is absolutely impracticable to arrange the transports in any other manner than we have done without unloading and new filling all the ships, and which would require at least three weeks from this time. The Lady Penrhyn being intended for seventy women, the number we were ordered to provide for, was made a provision ship, and fitted accordingly for the women. The others, being for males had the disposition of provisions suitable to that arrangement. I do not, however, see any force in the objection you have mentioned of putting male and female in the same ship, as it is done continually in all the African (Negro) cargoes that are carried to the West Indies. Each have their separate rooms, and, though, both in the same vessel have no communication with each other. It will be the same in the two ships who are to go to Plymouth and who by a new arrangement of the marines will just carry the number of males and females intended to embark from that place.......The women cannot be more crowded than they are having only 1 1/2 tons allowed to each, and which is as little as possible for so long a voyage. [7]

The Lady Penrhyn transported the largest number of female prisoners. Despite Sir Charles Middleton's protestations, that the Lady Penrhyn was only fitted for 70 women, 102 - 104 women were sent on her, although at first 109 women and children were mistakenly embarked. Governor Philip thought that she should have 'with propriety have carried only 2/3 of that number' [3]

Meteorological Table March 1787 when Female Convicts were embarked on the vessels of the First Fleet

The women came on board the Lady Penrhyn in a dreadful state..... Governor Phillip wrote to Under Secretary Nepean

(London) 18 March 1787 The situation in which the magistrates sent the women on board the Lady Penrhyn stamps them with infamy - tho' almost naked, and so very filthy, that nothing but clothing them could have prevented them from perishing and which could not be done in time to prevent a fever, which is still on board that ship and where there are many venereal complaints that must spread in spite of every precaution, I may take hereafter, and will be fatal to themselves. There is a necessity for doing something for the young man who is on board that ship as surgeon or I fear that we shall lose him, and then a hundred women will be left without any assistance, several of them with child. Let me repeat my desire that orders immediately may be given to increase the convict allowance of bread. 16lbs of bread for 42 days is very little [1]

The Mother Bank

ed nearby at the Mother Bank. The Mother Bank was a shallow sandbank in in the sea between the Isle of Wight and England and was situated north west of the town of Ryde in the area known as Ryde Roads. They were joined at the Mother Bank by the vessels from Plymouth, the Charlotte and Friendship. While at the Mother Bank a baby boy was safely delivered on the 13th April and the following day a woman by the name of Bruce fell from the forecastle and fractured her leg. - *probably Elizabeth Bruce who had been tried in London 10 January 1787 and sentenced to 7 years transportation for stealing aprons. See the Proceedings of the Old Bailey Online

John Turnpenny Altree had been appointed to the position of surgeon to the convicts and it was he who was referred to by Governor Phillip in the above correspondence. He had become ill after embarking and was taken on shore to Ryde at the Isle of Wight to recover in late March or early April where he was visited several times by Lieutenant (William) Collins and Arthur Bowes Smyth. Surgeon William Balmain of the Alexander delivered the abovementioned baby and probably attended to other injuries and illness as well.

Map showing Portsmouth, Spithead and the Mother BankMap showing location of Portsmouth, Mother Bank and Spithead. Date 1759

Arthur Bowes Smyth was appointed surgeon to the Captain and ship's company. He kept a Journal from 22 March 1787, the date of his embarkation at the Mother Bank near Portsmouth. The National Library of Australia holds the Journal of Arthur Bowes Smyth ........ Arthur Bowes Smyth was born in Essex. In his writings Smyth puts a human face to the convicts as well as revealing his interest in natural history, the collection of specimens and drawing, including the earliest existing depiction by a European of an emu. In April 1788, Smyth returned to England on the 'Lady Penrhyn' via Lord Howe Island, Tahiti, China and St Helena. On Lord Howe Island, he made the earliest drawing of the now extinct white gallinule, and observed the currawong (or bell magpie) and four now rare or extinct birds, namely, the Lord Howe pigeon, the booby, the Lord Howe rail or woodhen and an extinct species of parakeet. [2]

The Crew and Guard consisted of Captain Sever, Captain James Campbell, Lieutenant Johnston, Lieutenant Collins all of the Marines; Lieutenant Watts of the Navy; a passenger to China, Mr. Nicholas Anstis, Chief Mate, Mr. Young, the steward; and 36 foremast men with a carpenter and cooper; Mr. Squires 2nd Mate, Mr. Ball 3rd Mate, Mr. Holmes 4th Mate.

On the 19th April word was received that Governor Phillip who was still in London had completed all the arrangements and was soon expected at the Mother Bank. At this time there were seventy women on the Lady Penrhyn and they were managing to create mischief. Four had been found with the male convicts and another with the 2nd Mate Squires. It was recommended that Squires be removed from the ship and all five women were put in irons. Bowes Smythe took over the duties of caring for the injured Elizabeth Bruce. It was unusual enough for him to remark at this time that a corpse sewed up in a hammock floated by the Lady Penrhyn and a few days another, supposed to be the body of a woman.

Some of the women were put in irons for fighting and then the wind began to blow hard about 25th April and they all began to feel the effects of the motion of the ship and were probably too ill to quarrel.

Mr. Altree joined the ship again, having recovered from his illness. On the 3rd May Arthur Bowes Smythe noted that 36 female convicts and 3 male convicts together with 2 children arrived at Portsmouth and were shipped for the Mother Bank.

He recorded in his Journal that 104 women and eight children in total were embarked. The children included Jane Jones age 2; Mary Mullens age 3; Mary Fowler age 4; William Tilley age 6 weeks; John Harrison age 15. One infant died.

The convicts were now all on board and the Fleet was assembled at the Mother Bank. The Scarborough and Lady Penrhyn had embarked convicts at Portsmouth, the Friendship and Charlotte at Plymouth, and the Prince of Wales and Alexander at Woolwich. [11]

Departure of the Fleet

Governor Phillip arrived at Portsmouth on 6th May and went on board the Sirius on the 8th. An order was sent out that all the dogs on board were to be sent on shore. On Saturday 12 May 1787 Arthur Bowes wrote...Very little wind. The Commodore sent on board all the ships to desire no one might be suffered to leave the ships. At 9am the signal made by the Sirius to weigh the anchors and sail....4pm the Sirius got under weigh and most of the other ships except the Charlotte, the Lady Penrhyn and Prince of Wales, as their bread and water were not completed. The Lady Penrhyn set sail about 5 o'clock in the morning of Sunday 13th May as did all the other ships. A very fine day with a good breeze and East-S-E. Went through the Needles 11am.

Crossing the Line

Surgeon John White who was on the Charlotte made the following entry in his journal as they crossed the line on 10th June -

This morning the fleet got under way with a light breeze, which carried us out of Santa Cruz, but left us two days becalmed between Teneriffe and the Grand Canary. After this a fine breeze sprung up from the north-east; and no occurrence worthy of notice happened for some days. We crossed the tropical line in 18 20' west longitude, and was nearly pressed on board the Lady Penrhynn transport, whose people did not attend to her steerage, being deeply engaged in sluicing and ducking all those on board who had never crossed it.

Rio De Janeiro

They arrived at Rio de Janeiro on 6th August 1787 and sailed from there on 5th September 1787.

By mid October they had arrived at Table Bay at the Cape of Good Hope where thanks to the persistence of Governor Philip they obtained supplies of corn, stock and other necessaries. Unfortunately the quantity they could find room for fell very short of what was needed to have taken in as the only spare room was what had been used by the consumption of provisions since they had left Rio and the removal of twenty female convicts from the Friendship into the Charlotte, the Lady Penrhyn and the Prince of Wales.

John White was ill in the beginning of January. When he recovered he went on board the Fishburne to treat the boatswain who had fallen from the topsail yard and was mortally injured -

8th January. The master of the ship showed evident marks of great concern for this invaluable man, as he termed him. He declared to me that, sooner than venture again on so long a voyage without a surgeon, he would put to sea with less than half his complement of men; for he was strongly of opinion that if the poor fellow had received immediate assistance he would have recovered. I should have seen him sooner, but was prevented by my own indifferent state of health. How owners of ships can think of sending them through such a variety of climates, and a voyage of so great a length, without a surgeon, is to me a matter of surprise. The Lady Penrhyn, owned by Alderman William Curtis, was the only merchant ship in our fleet that had a surgeon. What the others will do on their return, Heaven only knows; but this I well know, that they would never have reached thus far but for the succour given them by myself and my assistants.

Botany Bay

The Lady Penrhyn arrived in Botany Bay on 20 January 1788.

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean,
Headquarters, Sydney Cove

26th April 1788 -
Sir, As the surgeon volunteer who was put on board the Lady Penrhyn transport to attend the convicts was found to be very unequal to the task, I was under the necessity of desiring Mr. Arthur Bowes, surgeon of that transport, to take charge of the medicines, and attend to the sick, which he did with great attention. I therefore beg leave to recommend him to your notice, as he has not received any recompense for his trouble....Arthur Phillip

Return to England

The Lady Penrhyn arrived back safely in England in August 1789 and was sold to Wedderburn and Co., London and used in a regular run to Jamaica. In July 1811 the Lady Penrhyn was taken by a French privateer while on a voyage to Grenada. She was set on fire and scuttled.

The next convict ship to arrive in New South Wales after the First Fleet was the Lady Juliana.

Notes and Links

1). Surgeon John Irvine arrived as a convict on the Lady Penrhyn

2). One of the woman on the Lady Penrhyn, Ann Davis from London became the first woman executed in Australia. She was publicly hanged for theft in November 1789. Watkin Tench recorded her attempt to escape the sentence.....To the honour of the female part of our community let it be recorded, that only one woman has suffered capital punishment; on her condemnation she pleaded pregnancy; and a jury of venerable matrons was empanelled on the spot, to examine and pronounce her state; which the forewoman, a grave personage between 60 and 70 years old, did, by this short address to the court; 'Gentlemen! 'she is as much with child as I am'. Sentence was accordingly passed and she was executed. [10]

3). The youngest female convict transported on the First Fleet arrived on the Lady Penrhyn. This was 13 year old Elizabeth Hayward.[4]

4). Dorothy Handland an old clothes woman in her 80's who had been tried at the Old Bailey in 1786 arrived on the Lady Penrhyn. In 1793 she was given permission to return to England on the Kitty.

5). Mary Eggleton who arrived as a convict on the Lady Penrhyn died in August 1799. She was buried in the Old Sydney Burial Ground as was Mary Finn who died in May 1793; Mary Davidson/Horrall who died in March 1809; and Ann Sandlands who drowned in Cockle Bay in January 1809.

6). Thomas Bramwell came free by the Lady Penrhyn

7). The following anonymous letter was written by one of the First Fleet convict women, perhaps one of those arriving on the Lady Penrhyn.....

Letter from a Female Convict

Port Jackson, 14th November, 1788.
I TAKE the first opportunity that has been given us to acquaint you with our disconsolate situation in this solitary waste of the creation. Our passage, you may have heard by the first ships, was tolerably favourable; but the inconveniences since suffered for want of shelter, bedding, etc, are not to be imagined by any stranger. However, we have now two streets, if four rows of the most miserable huts you can possibly conceive of deserve that name. Windows they have none, as from the Governor's house, etc., now nearly finished, no glass could be spared; so that lattices of twigs are made by our people to supply their places. At the extremity of the lines, where since our arrival the dead are buried, there is a place called the church-yard; but we hear, as soon as a sufficient quantity of bricks can be made, a church is to be built, and named St. Philip, after the Governor. Notwithstanding all our presents, the savages still continue to do us all the injury they can, which makes the soldiers' duty very hard, and much dissatisfaction among the officers. I know not how many of our people have been killed. As for the distresses of the women, they are past description, as they are deprived of tea and other things they were indulged in in the voyage by the seamen, and as they are all totally unprovided with clothes, those who have young children are quite wretched. Besides this, though a number of marriages have taken place, several women, who became pregnant on the voyage, and are since left by their partners, who have returned to England, are not likely even here to form any fresh connections. We are comforted with the hopes of a supply of tea from China, and flattered with getting riches when the settlement is complete, and the hemp which the place produces is brought to perfection. Our kangaroo rats are like mutton, but much leaner; and there is a kind of chickweed so much in taste like our spinach that no difference can be discerned. Something like ground ivy is used for tea; but a scarcity of salt and sugar makes our best meals insipid. The separation of several of us to an uninhabited island was like a second transportation. In short, every one is so taken up with their own misfortunes that they have no pity to bestow upon others. All our letters are examined by an officer, but a friend takes this for me privately. The ships sail tomorrow.* [* The Fishburn and Golden Grove, transports.] Title: Early News from a New Colony: British Museum Papers Author: Anonymous, Unknown *
A Project Gutenberg Australia eBook

9). Lieutenant Watt.... R.N. This officer sailed in the transport Lady Penrhyn Captain Sever from Port Jackson for Macao roads, China, May 5th, 1788. During the voyage, undertaken under great difficulties, owing to the alarming inroads made by scurvy among the ships company, the vessels in order to recruit the health of the crew and lay in a stock of fresh provisions were forced to bear up for Tahiti. Macauley and Curtis islands were discovered en route, and Matavai bay Otaheite arrived at July 10th, 1788. Having refreshed his crew, the passage was continued for Tinian, Penrhyn island being discovered on the way. Having filled up with water no material incident occurred between this and Macao which roadstead was reached October 19th, 1788. - Memoirs of Hydrography

10). A letter home by James Callam - Surgeon on First Fleet vessel HMAT Supply

11). Convict Margaret Dawson was born c. 1771 and died 16 Feb 1816 in St James, Westminster. She was tried at the Old Bailey on 22 Feb 1786 at the age of 15 for stealing from her employer. She later entered into a relationship with surgeon William Balmain

12). Obituary of Sir Charles Middleton

13). James Campbell embarked as Captain of Marines with the First Fleet on board the Lady Penrhyn and served in New South Wales until December 1791. He took a great interest in the flora and fauna, sending natural history specimens including a kangaroo skin, and drawings by Captain John Hunter, back to his patron and Royal Navy Captain, Lord Ducie. He returned to England on the Gorgon in 1791. Read the Letters received from Captain James Campbell, 12 July 1788 - State Library of NSW

14). National Archives UK - Voyages of the Lady Penrhyn: (1) 1787/8 New South Wales and China. Capt William C. Sever. Whampoa 8 Jan 1789 - 14 Jan Second Bar - 19 May St Helena - 10 Aug Downs.

16). The names of the female convicts of the Lady Penrhyn were recorded in Arthur Bowes Smyth's Journal.....
Francis Davis 22, In service Robbery, 14 years
Ann Yates 19, Milliner, House breaking, 7
Mary Love 60, Service, Lamb Stealing, 14
Ann Colepits 28, Do. Privately Stealing, 7
Elizabeth Lock 23, Do. Housebreaking, 7
Mary Gamboll 37, Do. Defrauding, 7
Olivia Gascoin 24, Do. Theft, 7
Mary Tilley 30, Do. Housebreaking, 7
Sarah Davis 26, Glove Maker Shoplifting, 7
Ann Inett 30, Mantua Maker Housebreaking, 7

My. Wilkes alias Turner 21, Service, Privately Stealing 7
Elizabeth Bird 45, Do. Lamb Stealing, 7
Ann Dawly alias Twifield 23, Do. Highway Robbery, 7
Sarah Bellamy 17, Do. Privately Stealing, 7
Mary Davis 25, Do. Housebreaking, 7
Mary Mitchell 19, Do. Privately Stealing, 7
Mary Bolton 29, Do. Housebreaking, 7
Mary Dickenson 26, Barrow Woman Stealing, 7
Amelia Levi 19, Furrier Shoplifting, 7
Elizabeth Hall, Service, House Robbery, 7

Margaret Fownes 45, Do. Highway Robbery, 7
Hannah Mullins 20, Do. Forgery, For Life.
Elizabeth Beckford 70, Do. Shoplifting, 7
J: Jones alias Osborn 28, Do. Robbery, 7
Elizabeth Colley 22, Do. Housebreaking, 14
Elizabeth Lee 24, Do. Robbery, 7
Mary Brenham 17, Do. Housebreaking, 7
Elizabeth Hipsley 28, Needlework Picking Pockets, 7
Ann Read 22, Service Street Robbery, For Life
Susan Hufnall 24, Do. Buying Stolen Goods, 7

Eleona M'Cave 24, Hawker Robbery, 7
Mary Finn 26, Service, Do. 7
Martha Eaton 25, Do. Buying Stolen Goods, 7
Mary Greenwood 24, Do. Street Robbery, 7
Elizabeth Cole 20, Milliner Shop Lifting, 7
Catharine Hart 19, Service Privately Stealing, 7
Mary Hill 20,Do. Pickg. Pockets, 7
Margaret Dawson 17, Do. Privately Stealing, 7
Elizabeth Dalton 21, Do. Shoplifting, 7
Elizabeth Marshall 29, Do. Do., 7

Mary Moulton 21, Do. Do., 7
Ann Morton 20, Do. Do., 7
Elizabeth Evans 28, Do. Do., 7
Mary Humphreys 30, Do. Pickg. Pockets, 7
Ann Ward 20, Lace Maker Shoplifting, 7
Elizabeth Needham 25, Maker of Child Bed Linen Do., 7
Lucy Wood alias Bran 33, Service Pickg. Pocketts, 7
Ann Martin 17, Do. Shop Lifting, 7
Mary Harrison 34, Silk Winder Misdemeanour, 7
A, Sandlyn alias Lyon alias Bretton 30, Needlework Petty Larceny, 7
Ann Green alias Cowly 28, Mantua Maker Privately Stealing., 7

Rebecca Davison 28, Needlework Picking Pockets, 7
Mary Cooper 47, Chair Woman Stealing, 7
Ann Davis 29, Service, Shoplifting, 7
Ann Dutton 25, Do. Privately Stealing, 7
Mary Carroll 36, Mantua Maker Privately Stealing, 7
Ann Thornton 32, Service Do., 7
Mary Smith 25, Mantua Maker Shoplifting, 7
Ann George 22, Shoe Binder Pickg. pockets, 7
Esther Howard 29, Service Privately Stealing, 7
Mary Cockran 32, Dealer Recg. Stolen Goods, 14

Sophia Lewis 29, Service Shoplifting, 7
Ann Morton 20, Do. Do., 7
Mary Jackson 31, Hawker Pickg. Pocketts, 7
Elizabeth Fowles
Mary Adams. Service Housebreaking Privately Stealing, 7
Mary Parker 28, Do. Do., 7
Mary Dicks 29, Stay Maker Pickg. Pockets, 7
Mary Williams 39, Needlework Privately Stealing, 7
Margarett Bourn 25, Service Pickg. Pockets, 7
Ann Powell 35, Do. Privately Stealing, 7

Dorothy Handlyn alias Grey x 82, Dealer, Perjury, 7
Mary Lawrence 30, Service, Privately Stealing, 7
Sarah Partridge 22, Mantua Maker Shoplifting, 7
Mary Slater 23, Watch-Chain Maker Shoplifting, 7
Sarah Piles 20, Service Pickg. Pocketts, 7
Jane Creek 48, Do. Privately Stealing, 7
Phoebe Norton 26, Do. Do. 7
Elizabeth Bruce 29, Do. Do., 7
Elizabeth Anderson 32, Do. Recg. Stolen Goods, 7
Susan Trippett 22, Artificial Flower Maker, Pickg. Pocketts, 7
Mary Conner alias Alien 28, Hawker Shop Lifting, 7

Catharine Henry 36, Do. Do., 7
Elizabeth Fitzgerald 26, Service Felony, 7
Elizabeth Leonard 33, Do. Stealing, 7
Mary Alien 22, Do. Pickg. pockets, 7
Mary Jackson 22, Do. Do., 7
Martha Baker 25, Do. Do., 7
Martha Burkett 33, Do. Do., 7
Charlotte Sprigmore 30, Silk Winder Misdemeanour, 7
Tamasin Allen 32, Service Picking. Pockets, 7
Mary Marshall 19, Do. Do., For Life

Mary Springham 21, Hawker Do., 7
Ann Smith 30, Nurse Stealing, 7
Sarah Purdue 23, Mantua Maker Robbery, 7
Maria Hamilton 33, Lace Weaver Privately Stealing, 7
Charlotte Cook 20, Tambour Worker Do., 7
Sarah Hall 46, Hawker Do., 7
Elizabeth Haward 13, Clogmaker Stealing, 7
Sarah Parry 28, Milliner, Felony, For Life.
Isabella Lawson 33, Mantua Maker Privately Stealing, 7
Jane Parkenson 30, Milliner Died on the passage, 7

Esther Abraham 20, Do. Shoplifting ,7
Mary Harrison 25, Service Stealing, 7
Maria Martin 20, Do. Stealing, 7
Sarah Smith 35, Hawker Do., 7
Frances Anderson 30, Dealer Robbery, 7
Susan Blanchard 25, Service Do. ,7
Marearett Blades 25, Pedlar and Char woman; offence defrauding, 7 years


[1] HRA, Vol 1, Part 2, Governor Philip to Under Secretary Nepean 18 March 1787 p.59

[2] Journal of Arthur Bowes Smyth, 1787 March 22-1789 August 8 [manuscript]., National Library of Australia, MS 4568

[3] HRA. Vol 1, Part 2, Governor Philip to Under Secretary Nepean 11 April 1787. p77

[4] Robinson, Portia, The Women of Botany Bay, Penguin Books 1993, p. 57.

[5] HR NSW, Vol 1, part 2, p. 51

[6] HR NSW, Vol.1, part 2, p.43

[7] HR NSW, Vol 1 part 2, p.35

[8] Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe - John Howard

[9] HRA. Vol.1 Part 2. p 120

[10] Encyclopaedia: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature