Free Settler or Felon

Convict Ship Archduke Charles 1813


First Name

Surname / Subject


Convict Ship Archduke Charles 1813

Embarked:147 men; 54 women
Voyage: 277 days
Deaths 2
Surgeon's Journal - No
Previous vessel: Minstrel arrived 25 October 1812
Next vessel: Fortune arrived 11 June 1813
Master J. P Jeffreys
Surgeon John Pawson
Follow the Female Convict Ship Trail
Follow the Irish Convict Ship Trail Convicts
Passengers and convicts of the Archduke Charles identified in the Hunter Valley

The Archduke Charles was built at Shields in 1809 and owned by H. Moore. She was two decked and was sheathed in copper in 1810. She carried 4 x 6 pound guns and 12 x 12 pound carronade. [3]

The Archduke Charles left Portsmouth on 28th March 1812 bound for Cork where 147 male and 54 female convicts would be embarked. The Archduke Charles was one of the last convict ships to carry both male and female prisoners.


The Archduke Charles departed Cork on 15 May 1812.

Passengers and Military Guard

Passengers included Lieutenant John Burbridge and Lieutenant Philip Connor of the 1st Battalion, 73rd regiment, with a detachment of thirty non-commissioned officers and privates to join the Battalion.

Lieutenant Burbridge was intending to resign his commission and return to England on urgent private business as early as November 1813, however did not depart until May 1814. He was referred to in correspondence as that unfortunate young man [2].

Detachments of the 73rd arrived on the Dromedary, Indefatigable, Guildford, Hindostan, Indian, Archduke Charles, AnnFortune 1813,  Providence 1811 and Admiral Gambier 1811.

Rio de Janeiro

They called at Rio de Janeiro and departed from there in company with the Minstrel and Indefatigable on 11th August 1812.

Cape of Good Hope

They were delayed soon leaving Rio because of the loss of the rudder and put into port at the Cape of Good Hope on 25th of September to make repairs. They remained at the Cape until the 19th December 1812 and while there the convicts made complaints of ill treatment against Captain Jeffrey to Governor Sir John Craddock. A board of Enquiry was established to investigate the conduct of Captain Jeffrey and a copy of the proceedings was forwarded to Governor Macquarie.

Port Jackson

The Archduke Charles arrived in Port Jackson on 16 February 1813 - a voyage of over nine months.

Convict Muster and Investigation

After arrival in Port Jackson further complaints were preferred by some of the convicts against Captain Jeffreys prompting Governor Macquarie to order Secretary Mr. Campbell and Acting Commissary Willliam Broughton to investigate the claims at the muster of convicts previous to disembarkation. It was found that the charges were either ill founded or frivolous, and that any severity the convicts may have suffered were the natural consequence of the mutinous disposition which they appear to have possessed........ The complaint of short rations is altogether confined to the period between their parting convoy and their arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, they all agree in admitting that from the Cape to this country they were fully supplied with provisions.

During the investigation by Messrs. Broughton and Campbell it was revealed that without a single exception the women amounting to fifty-four in number spoke in high terms of gratitude for the kindness and humanity with which they had been treated. They all spoke of the surgeon Mr. Pawson as a man of good and kind feelings though at the same time several of them complained that their slops which they had entrusted to his care were plundered however none of them attached any blame to him for that circumstance. [1]

Two prisoners died on the passage; namely, Arthur Culmady, aged 67, from the infirmities of age ; and John Lenna, a young man, from extreme debility. All the others arrived in apparent good health.

Convict indents included very little information - name, place of conviction, year of conviction, sentence and a few details about Tickets of Leave and Pardons.

Convict Assignment

By order of Governor Macquarie, the male prisoners were mostly assigned to settlers who had no government servants and who by their industry were deserving of the indulgence. Four prisoners were sent to work at the lumbar yard; two were assigned to Rev. Marsden; fifteen were sent to the Parramatta district and twenty to Windsor for distribution.

The female prisoners were forwarded to the Factory at Parramatta [1]. Benjamin Barrow was overseer of the Factory at this time and Captain Haddon Smith/ Smyth of the 73rd regt., had succeeded Lieutenant Durie as Commandant at Parramatta.....

In correspondence dated 19th February 1813 Captain Smyth was informed by the Colonial Secretary that..... Twenty five female convicts are sent by Boat to Parramatta to be employed in the Factory there. Should any respectable persons wish to obtain servants from among these women it is His Excellency the Governor's desire that you should accommodate them, on the usual terms 'Off the Stores' taking proper security for their good treatment.

Below is a list of the twenty five women sent to Parramatta on 19th February:

Catherine Brown
Mary Hyde
Mary Collins
Margaret Leary
Catherine Cammell
Mary Lysett
Mary Charlton
Eleanor Matthews
Elizabeth Dogherty
Jane McClernan
Mary Doyle
Mary Maguire
Mary Ferns
Magaret McDonald
Catherine Fearns
Jane O'Brien
Catherine Flynn
Mary Phillips
Catherine Fisher
Mary Roney
Ann Hagan
Jane Shea
Leititia Graham
Maria Stringer
Ann Hickey

Departure from Port Jackson

The Archduke Charles was hired by the East India Company to bring tea from China on the return of this voyage. She departed Port Jackson bound for China on 17th September 1813. On board were eight stowaways - H. Barnes, John Brennan, Luke Culverwell, John Connor, John Mahon, Nicholas Kearns and Catherine Flynn and Daniel Thurston. They were apprehended on the vessel's arrived in China and were returned to Australia on the Frederick in April 1815.

Fate of the Archduke Charles

The Archduke Charles was wrecked near Green Island, River St. Lawrence in June 1816 on the passage from Quebec to Halifax - Gentleman's Magazine

Notes and Links

1). Walter Hall - In 1813 Rev Marsden formed the New South Wales Society for Affording Protection to the Natives of the South Sea Islands and Promoting their Civilisation, and on 28 November 1814 set out with a party in the brig Active, which he had bought for 1400 pounds, to maintain the Maoris'; contact with civilization. (ADB Online)

Others joining the expedition included Thomas Hansen, free settler, master; Alexander Ross, came free in the Surry, John Hunter, free by birth in NSW; Thomas Hamilton , free by servitude; William Campbell, free by certificate; Warrakee a New Zealander, Tommy, ditto; Dicka-hee, Otaheitan, Punnee, Bolabolan. Passengers William Hall, missionary, Mrs. Dinah Hall, wife of William Hall, William Hall aged 3; Thomas Kendall, missionary, Mrs. Jane Kendall; Thomas Henry and William Kendall children of the above, John King, missionary; Mrs. Hannah King; Philip King aged 15 months; Thomas Hensen junior, son to the master, Mrs. Hannah Hansen wife of the Master; John Liddiard Nicholas, free settlers and eight New Zealanders and Chiefs.

The following convicts also joined the expedition - Walter Hall arrived as a prisoner on the Archduke Charles. In 1814 he was given special permission to join a missionary expedition to New Zealand on the condition of Rev. Samuel Marsden giving security that Hall would return to New South Wales within 3 years. Patrick/Henry Shaffery who arrived on the Sugar Cane and Richard Stockwell who arrived on the Earl Spencer were permitted to join the expedition likewise. Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand: Performed in the Years 1814 ...2 By John Liddiard Nicholas

2). Sarah Nixon was tried at the Armagh Assizes on Wednesday 15th August 1810. She and Henry McKinstry were convicted of felony and sentenced to be transported for seven years. They were the only prisoners that day to be sentenced to transportation. (Freeman' Journal, 24th August 1810)

3). Mary Rooney was tried for stealing two Quarts of Whiskey, the property of John Whelan and Jonas Hanway, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 7 years transportation. Mary Stafford, for the same offence, having pleaded not guilty, a Clerk in the House of Messrs Whelan and Hanaway, proved that having missed a quantity of Wine and Spirits, the 2 servant maids were suspected, and he and another were on the watch; and at three o'clock in the morning saw them lift up a trap door in the shop, when Mary Rooney went and drew two Quarts of Whiskey from a cask, while the prisoner at the bar held the candle for her. They were connected with men who receive the Wine and Sprits they stole, and he believed they often brought them into the House. The Jury returned a verdict of guilty.....His Lordship then passed sentence on the prisoner of transportation for seven years.

4). Henry Murray, stood indicted for stealing two suits of clothes and three dessert spoons, the goods of Alderman McKenna. Alderman stated, that he had hired the prisoner on the 18th September last as Coachman; that he had got a suit of clothes which had been worn by his predecessor; that soon after he had got a new suit of livery; that on the 10th October having heard a character of the prisoner not redounding much to his credit, he told him he should be obliged to part with him; prisoner, however saved him that trouble by taking himself off and with him the articles laid in the indictment. Prisoner said in his defence, that he had no other intention but to honesty return them when convenient, and that prosecutor was not the first Alderman he lived with, as he had served Alderman Bloxham, who, he was very sorry was not there, to give him an excellent charged. He was found guilty and sentenced to transportation for seven years. (Freeman's Journal 18 January 1812)

5). Recorder's Court Saturday November 2 - Charles Leary, for robbing his master Mr. Michael Martin of cash to a considerable amount, part only of which was identified, together with a pair of remarkable sleeve buttons, was found guilty, and sentenced to seven years transportation - Freeman's Journal 4 November 1811

6). Thomas Kelly, who had been convicted of cow stealing but recommended to mercy by the Grand Jury, was sentenced to transportation for life. James Brewster, for having a forged note in his possession, knowing it to be forged, was sentenced to transportation for fourteen years. - Freeman's Journal 2 November 1810

7). Ireland Marriages 1771 to 1812

8). Kerry Lyne was employed as a Constable at Patterson's Plains and Maitland

9). Catherine Flynn married John Tucker. She was drowned in the Hunter River in 1815. Find out more here.

10). John Brick was sent to the limeburners gang at Newcastle in 1814.

PUBLIC NOTICE. - The Persons under named, being Convicts who absconded from Newcastle, all Persons are hereby cautioned against harbouring, employing, encouraging,_ or in anywise maintaining any or either of the. said Persons on Pain of Prosecution ; Francis Purcelle, and Walter Preston, by the Guildford ; John Bricks, by the Archduke Charles ; Isaac Walker, by the 1st Gambier ; John Lee, by the 2d Gambier ; and Thomas Desmond, by the Atlas ; all of whom absented themselves from the lime-burning Gang, on the 25th of November ultimo. All Constables and others are hereby required to do their utmost Endeavour in apprehending or causing to be apprehended all or any of the said Fugitives. W. Hutchinson, Principal Superintendant. - [7]

They were all captured, punished with fifty lashes and returned to the settlement

11). Patrick Byrne was granted an absolute pardon for his part in John Oxley's expedition to the Lachlan River in 1818

12). Convict John Burke was later employed as overseer by Leslie Duguid at Luskintyre. He became the owner of considerable land and when he died in 1839 his son sub-divided the land. Bourke Street Maitland is named after John Burke.

13). Convicts and Passengers of the Archduke Charles identified in the Hunter Valley


[1] Colonial Secretary's Letters. Main series of letters received, 1788-1825. SReel 6043; 4/1728 pp.89-90. State Records Authority of New South Wales.

[2] New South Wales Government. Main series of letters received, 1788-1825. Series 897, Reels 6041-6064, 6071-6072. Item 4/3493, p. 150. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.

[3] Lloyds Register.



Settler and Immigrant Ships

Medical Practitioners

Inns and Hotels

Indigenous Notes

Lake Macquarie History

Law and Order

Maitland History

Australian History News

Australian Slang