Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

Buildings at Newcastle - 1822

Sydney Illustrated News 8 April 1875 Image above is Newcastle as it was c. 1822 from the Illustrated Sydney News 8 April 1875

The following List of buildings in Newcastle is from Historical Records of Australia, Vol, IX -

1. Church

A Handsome neat stone built Church with a Spire, situated on an elevated airy situation (Stonemason James Clohesy)

Church at Newcastle c. 1819 from Map entitled Port Hunter and its Branches c. 1819. State Library of NSW - Church at Newcastle c. 1819

2. Burial Ground

A Burial Ground of 4 acres enclosed with a paling

3. Parsonage

A Neat Brick built Stuccoed One Story parsonage house, with a verandah and all the necessary Out Offices and also a kitchen garden and grazing paddock, attached thereto, both enclosed with a paling. Rev. George Augustus Middleton was assistant chaplain at Newcastle in 1822.

The Deanery at Newcastle. Built in 1822

4. Commandant's Accommodation

The house and offices for the accommodation of the Commandant repaired, enlarged and considerably improved with a good Kitchen Garden and a large grazing paddock, both enclosed for the use of the Commandant. Colonel James T. Morisset was Commandant at Newcastle in 1822

5. Officer's Barracks

A Brick built barrack for three Subaltern Officers, having also the necessary Out Offices and a garden attached thereto

6. Assistant Surgeon's Accommodation

A Brick built Barrack for the assistant Surgeon of the Settlement with the necessary Out Offices and Garden attached thereto. Assistant surgeon was George Brooks

7. Soldier's Barracks

A Brick built barrack with front verandah for the accommodation of 100 soldiers with the necessary out offices, Guard House and Square in front for parading, the whole of these premises being enclosed with a high brick wall. A large kitchen garden being also attached to the barracks for the use of the troops. The 48th regiment were stationed at Newcastle in 1822

8. Military Hospital

A weather-boarded Military Hospital with a verandah in front for the accommodation of 20 patients, enclosed with a paling

Hospital at Newcastle c. 1828 - from Dangar's View of Kingstown No. 5 - Hospital at Newcastle from Dangar's Map of Kingstown c. 1828

9. Colonial Hospital

A weather-boarded Colonial Hospital with a verandah in front for the accommodation of 60 patients, having an extensive area of ground round it which is surrounded by a strong Stockade

10. Gaol

A large commodious Stone built Gaol, the necessary wards, cells and out offices, with apartments for the accommodation of the jailor and his family, the whole of the premises being surrounded with a strong stone wall 12 feet high

Newcastle Gaol c. 1819. Port Hunter and its branches, New South Wales [cartographic material

11. Granary

A large brick built provision store and Granary.

12. Storekeeper's Barracks

A weather boarded barrack for the Storekeeper with garden attached thereto. John Tucker was Storekeeper in 1822

13. Chief Constable's Accommodation

A weather boarded barrack for the Chief constable. John Smith was Chief Constable in 1822

14. Principal Superintendent of Convicts

A weather boarded barrack for the Principal Superintendent of Convicts. Isaac Elliot was Superintendent of Convicts and Public Works in 1822

15. Convict Barracks

A range of weather boarded barracks for the accommodation of 800 male convicts with kitchen gardens attached thereto

16. Female Convict Barracks

A separate small range of Barracks for the accommodation of 50 female convicts

17. Lumber Yard

A complete Lumber Yard enclosed with a strong stockade.
Convict Lumber Yard

18. Boat House

A large boat house for locking up the boats, tackle and oars in

19. Guard House

A weather boarded Guard House in a high situation over looking the Lumber Yard, Timber Lime and Coal Yard and boat house.

20. Watch House

A Watch house for the Constables on duty adjoining the Landing Place

21. Barracks for Pilot and Constables

A weather boarded Barrack for the Pilot, Overseers and Constables. William Eckford was Pilot in 1822

22. Wharf

A good strong substantial Wooden Wharf or quay and landing place for Vessels to load and unload their cargoes at.

23. Pier

A mole or pier on large substantial plan built of stone now erecting, across the Channel between the main and Coal Island for the purpose of protecting the Harbour of Newcastle from the great Surf coming in through the said channel and also for the purpose of confining the Waters of Hunters River exclusively to one channel so as to prevent the Harbour from being choked up. James Connolly was Principal Overseer at Macquarie Pier in 1822

Image showing Macquarie Pier from Dangar's Guide to Settlers c. 1828
Image of partially built Macquarie Pier from Dangar's Map of Kingstown c. 1828

24. Windmills

Two Stone built Windmills for grinding corn

25. Light House

A small stone tower with Light House. Can be seen on image above, centre right and below on Joseph Lycett's image of Aborigines resting by camp fire, near the mouth of the Hunter River, Newcastle, New South Wales (National Library Australia)

Aborigines resting by camp fire, near the mouth of the Hunter River, Newcastle by Joseph Lycett - National Library of Australia

26. Stock Yard

A long shed with Stock yard for the Government Working Oxen

27. Streets

The whole of the old streets in the town of Newcastle repaired and some new ones opened and made.

(The History of Early Newcastle 1800 - 1870, Documents and; Illustrations, Edited by D. O'Donnell)
(HRA., i, IX, pp 697-8)

A View of King's Town

A View of King's Town - Click to enlarge

The above engraving was included in Henry Dangar's Emigrant's Guide - Index and directory to map of the country bordering upon the River Hunter. Published in London : Joseph Cross, 1828

Printed on the engraved image are the following numbered locations: No.1 River Hunter. 2. Public Wharf. 3. Nobby Island 4. North end of Breakwater once intended to connect with the Island. 5. Hospital. 6. Gaol. 7. Police Magistrates Residence. 8. Sessions House. 9. High Land on the South of Port Stephens. 10. Fort, Signal Station and Light.

Notes and Links

1). Patrick Riley was employed as overseer of carpenters at Newcastle from approximately 1816 until 1823 when he established an Inn in the township. Some of the buildings above were probably constructed by convict labour under his direction.

2). Overseer of stonemasons James Clohesy arrived on the convict ship Somersetshire in 1814

3). Overseer of stonemasons James Connolly arrived on the Providence in 1811

4). Reminiscences of Watt Street

5). Harbour Lights


[1]. The Monitor 10 January 1834